Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 32, Issue 8, pp 3439–3449 | Cite as

Immersive virtual reality-based training improves response in a simulated operating room fire scenario

  • Ganesh SankaranarayananEmail author
  • Lizzy Wooley
  • Deborah Hogg
  • Denis Dorozhkin
  • Jaisa Olasky
  • Sanket Chauhan
  • James W. Fleshman
  • Suvranu De
  • Daniel Scott
  • Daniel B. Jones



SAGES FUSE curriculum provides didactic knowledge on OR fire prevention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an immersive virtual reality (VR)-based OR fire training simulation system in combination with FUSE didactics.


The study compared a control with a simulation group. After a pre-test questionnaire that assessed the baseline knowledge, both groups were given didactic material that consists of a 10-min presentation and reading materials about precautions and stopping an OR fire from the FUSE manual. The simulation group practiced on the OR fire simulation for one session that consisted of five trials within a week from the pre-test. One week later, both groups were reassessed using a questionnaire. A week after the post-test both groups also participated in a simulated OR fire scenario while their performance was videotaped for assessment.


A total of 20 subjects (ten per group) participated in this IRB approved study. Median test scores for the control group increased from 5.5 to 9.00 (p = 0.011) and for the simulation group it increased from 5.0 to 8.5 (p = 0.005). Both groups started at the same baseline (pre-test, p = 0.529) and reached similar level in cognitive knowledge (post-test, p = 0.853). However, when tested in the mock OR fire scenario, 70% of the simulation group subjects were able to perform the correct sequence of steps in extinguishing the simulated fire whereas only 20% subjects in the control group were able to do so (p = 0.003). The simulation group was better than control group in correctly identifying the oxidizer (p = 0.03) and ignition source (p = 0.014).


Interactive VR-based hands-on training was found to be a relatively inexpensive and effective mode for teaching OR fire prevention and management scenarios.


Immersive VR VR training Simulation training OR fire management 



The authors acknowledge the valuable inputs from the SAGES FUSE committee during the various phases of the development of the VEST OR fire module, providing questionnaire to be used for the study and sharing power point presentation materials.


This work was supported by funding from NIH/NIBIB R01 EB014305.

Compliance with ethical standards


Dr. Jones is a consultant for Allurin, a Intragastric balloon company. Drs. Sankaranarayanan, Dorozhkin, Olasky, Chauhan, Fleshman, Scott, De and Ms. Wooley and Hogg have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MOV 273204 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ganesh Sankaranarayanan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lizzy Wooley
    • 1
  • Deborah Hogg
    • 2
  • Denis Dorozhkin
    • 3
  • Jaisa Olasky
    • 4
  • Sanket Chauhan
    • 1
  • James W. Fleshman
    • 1
  • Suvranu De
    • 3
  • Daniel Scott
    • 2
  • Daniel B. Jones
    • 5
  1. 1.Baylor University Medical CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.UT Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  4. 4.Mt Auburn HospitalCambridgeUSA
  5. 5.Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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