Arterioportal shunting, splanchnic capillary perfusion, and the effects of colloids during capnoperitoneum in neonatal and adolescent pigs
Clinical and experimental data indicate that neonates are sensitive to the CO2 pneumoperitoneum. An impaired splanchnic perfusion during laparoscopy in adults has been reported. We recently confirmed that intravenous colloids improve macrocirculatory function in neonates. We aimed to determine the impact of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the perfusion of splanchnic organs in the young including effects of colloid application.
Male piglets (n = 25) were divided into four groups: (1) neonatal controls, (2) neonates with crystalloid restitution, (3) neonates with colloidal restitution, and (4) adolescents with crystalloid restitution. Animals were ventilated and subjected to a 3-h, 10 mmHg CO2 pneumoperitoneum followed by 2 h resuscitation. Hepatic, splanchnic, and arteriovenous shunt perfusion was assessed via central and portal venous catheters. Capillary organ flow was detected by fluorescent microspheres. The rate of bile flow was measured.
The neonatal crystalloid group showed a significant decrease in the intestinal capillary perfusion at the end of the recovery period. This was not detectable in the adolescent and colloid group. There was a significant increase in microcirculatory arterioportal shunt flow during the CO2 pneumoperitoneum in both neonatal groups but not in the sham and adolescent groups (p < 0.05). Hepatic arterial perfusion increased after insufflation in all groups and dropped during capnoperitoneum to levels of about 70% baseline. There was no significant impairment of splanchnic perfusion or bile flow as a result of the pneumoperitoneum in all groups.
Capillary perfusion of the abdominal organs was stable during capnoperitoneum and recovery in adolescents and neonates with colloid restitution, but not with crystalloid restitution. Significant arterioportal shunting during capnoperitoneum could affect hepatic microcirculation in neonates. Our data confirm that moderate pressure capnoperitoneum has no major effect on the perfusion of abdominal organs in neonates with adequate substitution.
KeywordsPneumoperitoneum Hepatic arterial perfusion Laparoscopy Microcirculation Pediatric
Compliance with ethical standards
Dr. JF Kuebler, Dr. N. Schukfeh, Dr. G. Vieten, Prof. AW Osthaus, Dr. D. Huber, Dr. N. Dennhard, Prof. R. Suempelmann, Prof. BM Ure, and Prof. ML Metzelder have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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