Advertisement

Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 31, Issue 10, pp 3767–3782 | Cite as

SAGES guidelines for the use of laparoscopy during pregnancy

  • Jonathan P. PearlEmail author
  • Raymond R. Price
  • Allison E. Tonkin
  • William S. Richardson
  • Dimitrios Stefanidis
SAGES Guidelines

Preamble

Surgical interventions during pregnancy should minimize fetal risk without compromising the safety of the mother. Favorable outcomes for the pregnant woman and fetus depend on accurate and timely diagnosis with prompt intervention. Surgeons must be aware of data regarding differences in techniques used for pregnant patients to optimize outcomes. This document provides specific recommendations and guidelines to assist physicians in the diagnostic workup and treatment of surgical conditions in pregnant patients, focusing on the use of laparoscopy.

Disclaimer

Guidelines for clinical practice are intended to indicate preferable approaches to medical problems as established by experts in the field. These recommendations will be based on existing data or a consensus of expert opinion, when little or no data are available.

Guidelines are applicable to all physicians who address the clinical problem(s) without regard to specialty training or interests, and are intended to indicate the...

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosures

Dr. Stefanidis reports personal fees from WL Gore and Davol. Dr. Pearl, Dr. Price, Dr. Tonkin, and Dr. Richardson have no conflict of interest or nothing to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Pearl J, Price R, Richardson W, Fanelli R, Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic S (2011) Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and use of laparoscopy for surgical problems during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 25:3479–3492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kammerer WS (1979) Nonobstetric surgery during pregnancy. Med Clin North Am 63:1157–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kort B, Katz VL, Watson WJ (1993) The effect of nonobstetric operation during pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 177:371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Augustin G, Majerovic M (2007) Non-obstetrical acute abdomen during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 131:4–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fallon WF Jr, Newman JS, Fallon GL, Malangoni MA (1995) The surgical management of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions during pregnancy. Surg Clin North Am 75:15–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cox TC, Huntington CR, Blair LJ, Prasad T, Lincourt AE, Augenstein VA, Heniford BT (2016) Laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy versus open: a study in 1999 pregnant patients. Surg Endosc 30:593–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baer J (1932) Appendicitis in pregnancy with changes in position and axis of the normal appendix in pregnancy. JAMA 98:1359–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Masselli G, Derme M, Laghi F, Framarino-dei-Malatesta M, Gualdi G (2015) Evaluating the acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. Radiol Clin North Am 53:1309–1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Masselli G, Brunelli R, Monti R, Guida M, Laghi F, Casciani E, Polettini E, Gualdi G (2014) Imaging for acute pelvic pain in pregnancy. Insights Imaging 5:165–181PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eyvazzadeh AD, Levine D (2006) Imaging of pelvic pain in the first trimester of pregnancy. Radiol Clin North Am 44:863–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (1977) Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report no. 54, Bethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kennedy A (2000) Assessment of acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 21:64–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Toppenberg KS, Hill DA (1820) Miller DP (1999) Safety of radiographic imaging during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician 59:1813–1818Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore C, Promes SB (2004) Ultrasound in pregnancy. Emerg Med Clin North Am 22:697–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lim HK, Bae SH, Seo GS (1992) Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women: value of sonography. Ajr 159:539–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nelson MJ, Cavalieri R, Graham D, Sanders RC (1986) Cysts in pregnancy discovered by sonography. J Clin Ultrasound 14:509–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Katz DS, Klein MA, Ganson G, Hines JJ (2012) Imaging of abdominal pain in pregnancy. Radiol Clin North Am 50:149–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramalingam V, LeBedis C, Kelly JR, Uyeda J, Soto JA, Anderson SW (2015) Evaluation of a sequential multi-modality imaging algorithm for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the pregnant female. Emerg Radiol 22:125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brent RL (2015) Protection of the gametes embryo/fetus from prenatal radiation exposure. Health Phys 108:242–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Timins JK (2001) Radiation during pregnancy. N J Med 98:29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goldberg-Stein SA, Liu B, Hahn PF, Lee SI (2012) Radiation dose management: part 2, estimating fetal radiation risk from CT during pregnancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 198:W352–W356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karam PA (2000) Determining and reporting fetal radiation exposure from diagnostic radiation. Health Phys 79:S85–S90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gomes M, Matias A, Macedo F (2015) Risks to the fetus from diagnostic imaging during pregnancy: review and proposal of a clinical protocol. Pediatr Radiol 45:1916–1929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen MM, Kaimal A, Laros RK (2008) Guidelines for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 112:333–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Damilakis J, Perisinakis K, Tzedakis A, Papadakis AE, Karantanas A (2010) Radiation dose to the conceptus from multidetector CT during early gestation: a method that allows for variations in maternal body size and conceptus position. Radiology 257:483–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Angel E, Wellnitz CV, Goodsitt MM, Yaghmai N, DeMarco JJ, Cagnon CH, Sayre JW, Cody DD, Stevens DM, Primak AN, McCollough CH, McNitt-Gray MF (2008) Radiation dose to the fetus for pregnant patients undergoing multidetector CT imaging: Monte Carlo simulations estimating fetal dose for a range of gestational age and patient size. Radiology 249:220–227PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Groen RS, Bae JY, Lim KJ (2012) Fear of the unknown: ionizing radiation exposure during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 206:456–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stepp K, Falcone T (2004) Laparoscopy in the second trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 31:485–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McCollough CH, Schueler BA, Atwell TD, Braun NN, Regner DM, Brown DL, LeRoy AJ (2007) Radiation exposure and pregnancy: when should we be concerned? Radiographics 27:909–917 discussion 917–908 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (1977) Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report No 54, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Doll R, Wakeford R (1997) Risk of childhood cancer from fetal irradiation. Br J Radiol 70:130–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Osei EK, Faulkner K (1999) Fetal doses from radiological examinations. Br J Radiol 72:773–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lowe SA (2004) Diagnostic radiography in pregnancy: risks and reality. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 44:191–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Menias CO, Elsayes KM, Peterson CM, Huete A, Gratz BI, Bhalla S (2007) CT of pregnancy-related complications. Emerg Radiol 13:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hurwitz LM, Yoshizumi T, Reiman RE, Goodman PC, Paulson EK, Frush DP, Toncheva G, Nguyen G, Barnes L (2006) Radiation dose to the fetus from body MDCT during early gestation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 186:871–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Forsted DH, Kalbhen CL (2002) CT of pregnant women for urinary tract calculi, pulmonary thromboembolism, and acute appendicitis. Ajr 178:1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cook TS, Hilton S, Papanicolaou N (2013) Perspectives on radiation dose in abdominal imaging. Abdom Imaging 38:1190–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moore W, Bonvento MJ, Lee D, Dunkin J, Bhattacharji P (2015) Reduction of fetal dose in computed tomography using anterior shields. J Comput Assist Tomogr 39:298–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Masselli G, Derchi L, McHugo J, Rockall A, Vock P, Weston M, Spencer J, Subcommittee EFPI (2013) Acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnancy: ESUR recommendations. Eur Radiol 23:3485–3500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Katz DS, Khalid M, Coronel EE, Mazzie JP (2013) Computed tomography imaging of the acute pelvis in females. Can Assoc Radiol J 64:108–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karamat MI (2015) Strategies and scientific basis of dose reduction on state-of-the-art multirow detector X-Ray CT systems. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 43:33–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Furey EA, Bailey AA, Pedrosa I (2014) Magnetic resonance imaging of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Top Magn Reson Imaging 23:225–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Karul M, Berliner C, Keller S, Tsui TY, Yamamura J (2014) Imaging of appendicitis in adults. Rofo 186:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fonseca AL, Schuster KM, Kaplan LJ, Maung AA, Lui FY, Davis KA (2014) The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of suspected appendicitis in pregnancy: shortened length of stay without increase in hospital charges. JAMA Surg 149:687–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Birchard KR, Brown MA, Hyslop WB, Firat Z, Semelka RC (2005) MRI of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnant patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184:452–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Garcia-Bournissen F, Shrim A, Koren G (2006) Safety of gadolinium during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician 52:309–310PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Brown MA, Birchard KR, Semelka RC (2005) Magnetic resonance evaluation of pregnant patients with acute abdominal pain. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 26:206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Patel SJ, Reede DL, Katz DS, Subramaniam R, Amorosa JK (2007) Imaging the pregnant patient for nonobstetric conditions: algorithms and radiation dose considerations. Radiographics 27:1705–1722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Wilde JP, Rivers AW, Price DL (2005) A review of the current use of magnetic resonance imaging in pregnancy and safety implications for the fetus. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 87:335–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nagayama M, Watanabe Y, Okumura A, Amoh Y, Nakashita S, Dodo Y (2002) Fast MR imaging in obstetrics. Radiographics 22:563–580 discussion 580–562 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leyendecker JR, Gorengaut V, Brown JJ (2004) MR imaging of maternal diseases of the abdomen and pelvis during pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period. Radiographics 24:1301–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McKenna DA, Meehan CP, Alhajeri AN, Regan MC, O’Keeffe DP (2007) The use of MRI to demonstrate small bowel obstruction during pregnancy. Br J Radiol 80:e11–e14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Expert Panel on MRS, Kanal E, Barkovich AJ, Bell C, Borgstede JP, Bradley WG, Froelich JW, Gimbel JR, Gosbee JW, Kuhni-Kaminski E, Larson PA, Lester JW, Nyenhuis J, Schaefer DJ, Sebek EA, Weinreb J, Wilkoff BL, Woods TO, Lucey L, Hernandez D (2013) ACR guidance document on MR safe practices: 2013. J Magn Reson Imaging 37:501–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ditkofsky NG, Singh A (2015) Challenges in magnetic resonance imaging for suspected acute appendicitis in pregnant patients. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 44:297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burke LM, Bashir MR, Miller FH, Siegelman ES, Brown M, Alobaidy M, Jaffe TA, Hussain SM, Palmer SL, Garon BL, Oto A, Reinhold C, Ascher SM, Demulder DK, Thomas S, Best S, Borer J, Zhao K, Pinel-Giroux F, De Oliveira I, Resende D, Semelka RC (2015) Magnetic resonance imaging of acute appendicitis in pregnancy: a 5-year multiinstitutional study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213(693):e691–e696Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lubarsky M, Kalb B, Sharma P, Keim SM, Martin DR (2013) MR imaging for acute nontraumatic abdominopelvic pain: rationale and practical considerations. Radiographics 33:313–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baron KT, Arleo EK, Robinson C, Sanelli PC (2012) Comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI versus CT in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy. Emerg Radiol 19:519–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Unal A, Sayharman SE, Ozel L, Unal E, Aka N, Titiz I, Kose G (2011) Acute abdomen in pregnancy requiring surgical management: a 20-case series. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 159:87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Adelstein SJ (1999) Administered radionuclides in pregnancy. Teratology 59:236–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schaefer C, Meister R, Wentzeck R, Weber-Schoendorfer C (2009) Fetal outcome after technetium scintigraphy in early pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 28:161–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Karthikesalingam AMS, Weerakkody R, Walsh SR, Carroll N, Praseedom RK (2009) Radiation exposure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with routine intraoperative cholangiography. Surg Endosc 23:1845–1848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Savas N (2014) Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol 20:15241–15252PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Akcakaya A, Koc B, Adas G, Kemik O (2014) The use of ERCP during pregnancy: is it safe and effective? Hepatogastroenterology 61:296–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jorgensen JE, Rubenstein JH, Goodsitt MM, Elta GH (2010) Radiation doses to ERCP patients are significantly lower with experienced endoscopists. Gastrointest Endosc 72:58–65PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Andriulli A, Loperfido S, Napolitano G, Niro G, Valvano MR, Spirito F, Pilotto A, Forlano R (2007) Incidence rates of post-ERCP complications: a systematic survey of prospective studies. Am J Gastroenterol 102:1781–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Qureshi WA, Rajan E, Adler DG, Davila RE, Hirota WK, Jacobson BC, Leighton JA, Zuckerman MJ, Hambrick RD, Fanelli RD, Baron T, Faigel DO (2005) ASGE guideline: guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women. Gastrointest Endosc 61:357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Quan WL, Chia CK, Yim HB (2006) Safety of endoscopical procedures during pregnancy. Singapore Med J 47:525–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tang SJ, Mayo MJ, Rodriguez-Frias E, Armstrong L, Tang L, Sreenarasimhaiah J, Lara LF, Rockey DC (2009) Safety and utility of ERCP during pregnancy. Gastrointest Endosc 69:453–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Prachayakul V, Aswakul P (2016) Endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions in special situations. World J Gastrointest Endosc 8:104–112PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sethi S, Thosani N, Banerjee S (2015) Radiation-free ERCP in pregnancy: a “sound” approach to leaving no stone unturned. Dig Dis Sci 60:2604–2607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wu W, Faigel DO, Sun G, Yang Y (2014) Non-radiation endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of choledocholithiasis during pregnancy. Dig Endosc 26:691–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bouyou J, Gaujoux S, Marcellin L, Leconte M, Goffinet F, Chapron C, Dousset B (2015) Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy. J Visc Surg 152:S105–S115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Aggenbach L, Zeeman GG, Cantineau AE, Gordijn SJ, Hofker HS (2015) Impact of appendicitis during pregnancy: no delay in accurate diagnosis and treatment. Int J Surg 15:84–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cheng HT, Wang YC, Lo HC, Su LT, Soh KS, Tzeng CW, Wu SC, Sung FC, Hsieh CH (2015) Laparoscopic appendectomy versus open appendectomy in pregnancy: a population-based analysis of maternal outcome. Surg Endosc 29:1394–1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Andreoli M, Servakov M, Meyers P, Mann WJ Jr (1999) Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 6:229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shay DC, Bhavani-Shankar K, Datta S (2001) Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Anesthesiol Clin North America 19:57–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Curet MJ, Allen D, Josloff RK, Pitcher DE, Curet LB, Miscall BG, Zucker KA (1996) Laparoscopy during pregnancy. Arch Surg 131:546–550 discussion 550–541 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Oelsner G, Stockheim D, Soriano D, Goldenberg M, Seidman DS, Cohen SB, Admon D, Novikov I, Maschiach S, Carp HJ, Anderman S, Ben-Ami M, Ben-Arie A, Hagay Z, Bustan M, Shalev E, Carp H, Gemer O, Golan A, Holzinger M, Beyth Y, Horowitz A, Hamani Y, Keis M, Lavie O, Luxman D, Oelsner G, Stockheim D, Rojansky N, Taichner G, Yafe C, Zohar S, Bilanca B (2003) Pregnancy outcome after laparoscopy or laparotomy in pregnancy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 10:200–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reedy MB, Galan HL, Richards WE, Preece CK, Wetter PA, Kuehl TJ (1997) Laparoscopy during pregnancy. A survey of laparoendoscopic surgeons. J Reprod Med 42:33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Oelsner G, Stockheim D, Soriano D, Goldenberg M, Seidman DS, Cohen SB, Admon D, Novikov I, Maschiach S, Carp HJ, Anderman S, Ben-Ami M, Ben-Arie A, Hagay Z, Bustan M, Shalev E, Carp H, Gemer O, Golan A, Holzinger M, Beyth Y, Horowitz A, Hamani Y, Keis M, Lavie O, Luxman D, Rojansky N, Taichner G, Yafe C, Zohar S, Bilanca B (2003) Pregnancy outcome after laparoscopy or laparotomy in pregnancy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 10:200–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pucci RO, Seed RW (1991) Case report of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:401–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Weber AM, Bloom GP, Allan TR, Curry SL (1991) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 78:958–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Williams JK, Rosemurgy AS, Albrink MH, Parsons MT, Stock S (1995) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med 40:243–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Arvidsson D, Gerdin E (1991) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1:193–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Costantino GN, Vincent GJ, Mukalian GG, Kliefoth WL Jr (1994) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy. J Laparoendosc Surg 4:161–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Soriano D, Yefet Y, Seidman DS, Goldenberg M, Mashiach S, Oelsner G (1999) Laparoscopy versus laparotomy in the management of adnexal masses during pregnancy. Fertil Steril 71:955–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    McKellar DP, Anderson CT, Boynton CJ, Peoples JB (1992) Cholecystectomy during pregnancy without fetal loss. Surg Gynecol Obstet 174:465–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fatum M, Rojansky N (2001) Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 56:50–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Reedy MB, Kallen B, Kuehl TJ (1997) Laparoscopy during pregnancy: a study of five fetal outcome parameters with use of the Swedish Health Registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:673–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Glasgow RE, Visser BC, Harris HW, Patti MG, Kilpatrick SJ, Mulvihill SJ (1998) Changing management of gallstone disease during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 12:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Affleck DG, Handrahan DL, Egger MJ, Price RR (1999) The laparoscopic management of appendicitis and cholelithiasis during pregnancy. Am J Surg 178:523–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Barone JE, Bears S, Chen S, Tsai J, Russell JC (1999) Outcome study of cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Am J Surg 177:232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rollins MD, Chan KJ, Price RR (2003) Laparoscopy for appendicitis and cholelithiasis during pregnancy: a new standard of care. Surg Endosc 18:237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Weiner E, Mizrachi Y, Keidar R, Kerner R, Golan A, Sagiv R (2015) Laparoscopic surgery performed in advanced pregnancy compared to early pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 292:1063–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Geisler JP, Rose SL, Mernitz CS, Warner JL, Hiett AK (1998) Non-gynecologic laparoscopy in second and third trimester pregnancy: obstetric implications. JSLS 2:235–238PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Davis A, Katz VL, Cox R (1995) Gallbladder disease in pregnancy. J Reprod Med 40:759–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Muench J, Albrink M, Serafini F, Rosemurgy A, Carey L, Murr MM (2001) Delay in treatment of biliary disease during pregnancy increases morbidity and can be avoided with safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 67:539–542 discussion 542–533 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Visser BC, Glasgow RE, Mulvihill KK, Mulvihill SJ (2001) Safety and timing of nonobstetric abdominal surgery in pregnancy. Dig Surg 18:409–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Elkayam UGN (1982) Cardiovascular physiology of pregnancy. Alan R Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Clark SL, Cotton DB, Pivarnik JM, Lee W, Hankins GD, Benedetti TJ, Phelan JP (1991) Position change and central hemodynamic profile during normal third-trimester pregnancy and post partum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:883–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gordon MC (2002) Maternal physiology in pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL (eds) Obstetrics: normal and problem pregnancies. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, pp 63–91Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Friedman JD, Ramsey PS, Ramin KD, Berry C (2002) Pneumoamnion and pregnancy loss after second-trimester laparoscopic surgery. Obstet Gynecol 99:512–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Halpern NB (1998) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy: a review of published experiences and clinical considerations. Semin Laparosc Surg 5:129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Canis M, Rabischong B, Houlle C, Botchorishvili R, Jardon K, Safi A, Wattiez A, Mage G, Pouly JL, Bruhat MA (2002) Laparoscopic management of adnexal masses: a gold standard? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 14:423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Malangoni MA (2003) Gastrointestinal surgery and pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 32:181–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Huang KG, Chua AA, Lee CL (2014) Surgical trocar insertion among pregnant patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer 24:965–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lemaire BM, van Erp WF (1997) Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 11:15–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wang CJ, Yen CF, Lee CL, Soong YK (2002) Minilaparoscopic cystectomy and appendectomy in late second trimester. JSLS 6:373–375PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hume RF, Killiam AP (1990) Maternal Physiology. In: Scott JB, KiSaia J, Hammon DB (eds) Obstetrics and gynecology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 93–100Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    SAGES (1998) Guidelines for laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). Surg Endosc 12:189–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hunter JG, Swanstrom L, Thornburg K (1995) Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum induces fetal acidosis in a pregnant ewe model. Surg Endosc 9:272–277 discussion 277–279 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Reedy MB, Galan HL, Bean-Lijewski JD, Carnes A, Knight AB, Kuehl TJ (1995) Maternal and fetal effects of laparoscopic insufflation in the gravid baboon. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2:399–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Curet MJ, Vogt DA, Schob O, Qualls C, Izquierdo LA, Zucker KA (1996) Effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum in pregnant ewes. J Surg Res 63:339–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Barnard JM, Chaffin D, Droste S, Tierney A, Phernetton T (1995) Fetal response to carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in the pregnant ewe. Obstet Gynecol 85:669–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cruz AM, Southerland LC, Duke T, Townsend HG, Ferguson JG, Crone LA (1996) Intraabdominal carbon dioxide insufflation in the pregnant ewe. Uterine blood flow, intraamniotic pressure, and cardiopulmonary effects. Anesthesiology 85:1395–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Soper NJ, Hunter JG, Petrie RH (1992) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 6:115–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Comitalo JB, Lynch D (1994) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the pregnant patient. Surg Laparosc Endosc 4:268–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bhavani-Shankar K, Steinbrook RA, Brooks DC, Datta S (2000) Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure difference during laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy. Anesthesiology 93:370–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Melnick DM, Wahl WL, Dalton VK (2004) Management of general surgical problems in the pregnant patient. Am J Surg 187:170–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jorgensen JO, Lalak NJ, North L, Hanel K, Hunt DR, Morris DL (1994) Venous stasis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc 4:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Risk O (1992) Risk of and prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in hospital patients. Thromboembolic risk factors (THRIFT) consensus group. BMJ 305:567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Casele HL (2006) The use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 49:895–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hiatt JR, Hiatt JC, Williams RA, Klein SR (1986) Biliary disease in pregnancy: strategy for surgical management. Am J Surg 151:263–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ghumman E, Barry M, Grace PA (1997) Management of gallstones in pregnancy. Br J Surg 84:1646–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Chamogeorgakis T, Lo Menzo E, Smink RD Jr, Feuerstein B, Fantazzio M, Kaufman J, Brennan EJ, Russell R (1999) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy: three case reports. JSLS 3:67–69PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jelin EB, Smink DS, Vernon AH, Brooks DC (2008) Management of biliary tract disease during pregnancy: a decision analysis. Surg Endosc 22:54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Graham G, Baxi L, Tharakan T (1998) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy: a case series and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 53:566–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Steinbrook RA, Brooks DC, Datta S (1996) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Review of anesthetic management, surgical considerations. Surg Endosc 10:511–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Date RS, Kaushal M, Ramesh A (2008) A review of the management of gallstone disease and its complications in pregnancy. Am J Surg 196:599–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jorge AM, Keswani RN, Veerappan A, Soper NJ, Gawron AJ (2015) Non-operative management of symptomatic cholelithiasis in pregnancy is associated with frequent hospitalizations. J Gastrointest Surg 19:598–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ko CW (2006) Risk factors for gallstone-related hospitalization during pregnancy and the postpartum. Am J Gastroenterol 101:2263–2268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Scott LD (1992) Gallstone disease and pancreatitis in pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 21:803–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Printen KJ, Ott RA (1978) Cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Am Surg 44:432–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Othman MO, Stone E, Hashimi M, Parasher G (2012) Conservative management of cholelithiasis and its complications in pregnancy is associated with recurrent symptoms and more emergency department visits. Gastrointest Endosc 76:564–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Veerappan A, Gawron AJ, Soper NJ, Keswani RN (2013) Delaying cholecystectomy for complicated gallstone disease in pregnancy is associated with recurrent postpartum symptoms. J Gastrointest Surg 17:1953–1959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zhou Y, Zhang X, Zhang X, Guo Y, Lu W, Li J, Li Z (2013) ERCP in acute cholangitis during third trimester of pregnancy. Hepatogastroenterology 60:981–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Park ET (2015) Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography during pregnancy: really guarantee to safety? Gut Liver 9:569–570PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    DeVore GR (1980) Acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient due to pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, or peptic ulcer disease. Clin Perinatol 7:349–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Borum ML (1998) Hepatobiliary diseases in women. Med Clin North Am 82:51–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kimura Y, Takada T, Kawarada Y, Nimura Y, Hirata K, Sekimoto M, Yoshida M, Mayumi T, Wada K, Miura F, Yasuda H, Yamashita Y, Nagino M, Hirota M, Tanaka A, Tsuyuguchi T, Strasberg SM, Gadacz TR (2007) Definitions, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis: Tokyo guidelines. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 14:15–26PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tuech JJ, Binelli C, Aube C, Pessaux P, Fauvet R, Descamps P, Arnaud JP (2000) Management of choledocholithiasis during pregnancy by magnetic resonance cholangiography and laparoscopic common bile duct stone extraction. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 10:323–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Baillie J, Cairns SR, Putman WS, Cotton PB (1990) Endoscopic management of choledocholithiasis during pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 171:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sungler P, Heinerman PM, Steiner H, Waclawiczek HW, Holzinger J, Mayer F, Heuberger A, Boeckl O (2000) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and interventional endoscopy for gallstone complications during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 14:267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cosenza CA, Saffari B, Jabbour N, Stain SC, Garry D, Parekh D, Selby RR (1999) Surgical management of biliary gallstone disease during pregnancy. Am J Surg 178:545–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Barthel JS, Chowdhury T, Miedema BW (1998) Endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of gallstone pancreatitis during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 12:394–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Scapa E (1995) To do or not to do an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in acute biliary pancreatitis? Surg Laparosc Endosc 5:453–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Andreoli M, Sayegh SK, Hoefer R, Matthews G, Mann WJ (1996) Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for recurrent gallstone pancreatitis during pregnancy. South Med J 89:1114–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Fine S, Beirne J, Delgi-Esposti S, Habr F (2014) Continued evidence for safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography during pregnancy. World J Gastrointest Endosc 6:352–358PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Agcaoglu O, Ozcinar B, Gok AF, Yanar F, Yanar H, Ertekin C, Gunay K (2013) ERCP without radiation during pregnancy in the minimal invasive world. Arch Gynecol Obstet 288:1275–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Committee ASoP, Maple JT, Ikenberry SO, Anderson MA, Appalaneni V, Decker GA, Early D, Evans JA, Fanelli RD, Fisher D, Fisher L, Fukami N, Hwang JH, Jain R, Jue T, Khan K, Krinsky ML, Malpas P, Ben-Menachem T, Sharaf RN, Dominitz JA (2011) The role of endoscopy in the management of choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc 74:731–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Korndorffer JR Jr, Fellinger E, Reed W (2010) SAGES guideline for laparoscopic appendectomy. Surg Endosc 24:757–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cox TC, Huntington CR, Blair LJ, Prasad T, Lincourt AE, Augenstein VA, Heniford BT (2015) Laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy versus open: a study in 1999 pregnant patients. Surg Endosc 30:593–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Schwartzberg BS, Conyers JA, Moore JA (1997) First trimester of pregnancy laparoscopic procedures. Surg Endosc 11:1216–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Thomas SJ, Brisson P (1998) Laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy: six case reports. JSLS 2:41–46PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Barnes SL, Shane MD, Schoemann MB, Bernard AC, Boulanger BR (2004) Laparoscopic appendectomy after 30 weeks pregnancy: report of two cases and description of technique. Am Surg 70:733–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    de Perrot M, Jenny A, Morales M, Kohlik M, Morel P (2000) Laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 10:368–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Schreiber JH (1990) Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy. Surg Endosc 4:100–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sadot E, Telem DA, Arora M, Butala P, Nguyen SQ, Divino CM (2010) Laparoscopy: a safe approach to appendicitis during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 24:383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lemieux P, Rheaume P, Levesque I, Bujold E, Brochu G (2009) Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnant patients: a review of 45 cases. Surg Endosc 23:1701–1705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Abbasi N, Patenaude V, Abenhaim HA (2014) Management and outcomes of acute appendicitis in pregnancy-population-based study of over 7000 cases. BJOG 121:1509–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rapp EJ, Naim F, Kadivar K, Davarpanah A, Cornfeld D (2013) Integrating MR imaging into the clinical workup of pregnant patients suspected of having appendicitis is associated with a lower negative laparotomy rate: single-institution study. Radiology 267:137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Shalhav AL, Landman J, Afane J, Levi R, Clayman RV (2000) Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism during pregnancy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 10:169–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Finkenstedt G, Gasser RW, Hofle G, Lhotta K, Kolle D, Gschwendtner A, Janetschek G (1999) Pheochromocytoma and sub-clinical Cushing’s syndrome during pregnancy: diagnosis, medical pre-treatment and cure by laparoscopic unilateral adrenalectomy. J Endocrinol Invest 22:551–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Aishima M, Tanaka M, Haraoka M, Naito S (2000) Retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a pregnant woman with Cushing’s syndrome. J Urol 164:770–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lo CY, Lo CM, Lam KY (2002) Cushing’s syndrome secondary to adrenal adenoma during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 16:219–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Aslzare M, Alipour M, Taghavi M, Ghoreifi A (2014) Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a pregnant woman with Cushing’s syndrome. Urol J 11:1911–1913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Janetschek G, Finkenstedt G, Gasser R, Waibel UG, Peschel R, Bartsch G, Neumann HP (1998) Laparoscopic surgery for pheochromocytoma: adrenalectomy, partial resection, excision of paragangliomas. J Urol 160:330–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Demeure MJ, Carlsen B, Traul D, Budney C, Lalande B, Lipinski A, Cruikshank D, Kotchen T, Wilson S (1998) Laparoscopic removal of a right adrenal pheochromocytoma in a pregnant woman. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 8:315–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Pace DE, Chiasson PM, Schlachta CM, Mamazza J, Cadeddu MO, Poulin EC (2002) Minimally invasive adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12:122–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Gagner M, Breton G, Pharand D, Pomp A (1996) Is laparoscopic adrenalectomy indicated for pheochromocytomas? Surgery 120:1076–1079 discussion 1079–1080 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wolf A, Goretzki PE, Rohrborn A, Feldkamp J, Simon D, Scherbaum WA, Roher HD (2004) Pheochromocytoma during pregnancy: laparoscopic and conventional surgical treatment of two cases. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 112:98–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kim PT, Kreisman SH, Vaughn R, Panton ON (2006) Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma in pregnancy. Can J Surg 49:62–63PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Zuluaga-Gomez A, Arrabal-Polo MA, Arrabal-Martin M, Lahoz-Garcia C, Escobar-Jimenez F, Torres-Vela E, Saz T (2012) Management of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy: laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Am Surg 78:E156–E158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Griffiths J, Sia W, Shapiro AM, Tataryn I, Turner AR (2005) Laparoscopic splenectomy for the treatment of refractory immune thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 27:771–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Majesky I, Daniel I, Stefanikova Z, Skultety J, Koudelka P, Hutan M (2013) Laparoscopic splenectomy in pregnancy—from contraindication to golden standard. Bratisl Lek Listy 114:484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Samame J, Kaul A, Garza U, Echeverria A, Galvani C (2013) Laparoscopic aneurysm resection and splenectomy for splenic artery aneurysm in the third trimester of pregnancy. Surg Endosc 27:2988–2991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hardwick RH, Slade RR, Smith PA, Thompson MH (1999) Laparoscopic splenectomy in pregnancy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 9:439–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Allran CF Jr, Weiss CA 3rd, Park AE (2002) Urgent laparoscopic splenectomy in a morbidly obese pregnant woman: case report and literature review. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 12:445–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Iwase K, Higaki J, Yoon HE, Mikata S, Tanaka Y, Takahashi T, Hatanaka K, Tamaki T, Hori S, Mitsuda N, Kamiike W (2001) Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 11:53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Anglin BV, Rutherford C, Ramus R, Lieser M, Jones DB (2001) Immune thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy: laparoscopic treatment. JSLS 5:63–67PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    O’Connor JP, Biyani CS, Taylor J, Agarwal V, Curley PJ, Browning AJ (2004) Laparoscopic nephrectomy for renal-cell carcinoma during pregnancy. J Endourol 18:871–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Sainsbury DC, Dorkin TJ, MacPhail S, Soomro NA (2004) Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in first-trimester pregnancy. Urology 64(1231):e1237–e1238Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Akin Y, Ciftci H, Karahan MA, Incebiyik A (2015) Laparoscopic retroperitoneal radical nephrectomy in a pregnant woman with retrocaval artery. Int Urol Nephrol 47:469–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Domjan Z, Holman E, Bordas N, Dakay AS, Bahrehmand K, Buzogany I (2014) Hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in pregnancy. Int Urol Nephrol 46:1757–1760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Yin L, Zhang D, Teng J, Xu D (2013) Retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma during pregnancy. Urol Int 90:487–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Arvind NK, Singh O, Gupta SS, Sahay S, Ali K, Dharaskar A (2011) Laparoscopic nephrectomy for pyonephrosis during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Rev Urol 13:98–103PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Bozzo M, Buscaglia M, Ferrazzi E (1997) The management of persistent adnexal masses in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:981–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Webb KE, Sakhel K, Chauhan SP, Abuhamad AZ (2015) Adnexal mass during pregnancy: a review. Am J Perinatol 32:1010–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sisodia RM, Del Carmen MG, Boruta DM (2015) Role of minimally invasive surgery in the management of adnexal masses. Clin Obstet Gynecol 58:66–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Naqvi M, Kaimal A (2015) Adnexal masses in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 58:93–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Grimes WH Jr, Bartholomew RA, Colvin ED, Fish JS, Lester WM (1954) Ovarian cyst complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 68:594–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sherard GB, Hodson CA, Williams HJ, Semer DA, Hadi HA, Tait DL (2003) Adnexal masses and pregnancy: a 12-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:358–362 discussion 362–353 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Hess LW, Peaceman A, O’Brien WF, Winkel CA, Cruikshank DP, Morrison JC (1988) Adnexal mass occurring with intrauterine pregnancy: report of fifty-four patients requiring laparotomy for definitive management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:1029–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Schmeler KM, Mayo-Smith WW, Peipert JF, Weitzen S, Manuel MD, Gordinier ME (2005) Adnexal masses in pregnancy: surgery compared with observation. Obstet Gynecol 105:1098–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Zanetta G, Mariani E, Lissoni A, Ceruti P, Trio D, Strobelt N, Mariani S (2003) A prospective study of the role of ultrasound in the management of adnexal masses in pregnancy. BJOG 110:578–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Condous G, Khalid A, Okaro E, Bourne T (2004) Should we be examining the ovaries in pregnancy? Prevalence and natural history of adnexal pathology detected at first-trimester sonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 24:62–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    ACOG (2007) ACOG practice bulletin. Management of adnexal masses. Obstet Gynecol 110:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Goh W, Bohrer J, Zalud I (2014) Management of the adnexal mass in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 26:49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Parker J, Watkins W, Robinson H, Byrne D (1995) Laparoscopic adnexal surgery during pregnancy: a case of heterotopic tubal pregnancy treated by laparoscopic salpingectomy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 35:208–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Moore RD, Smith WG (1999) Laparoscopic management of adnexal masses in pregnant women. J Reprod Med 44:97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Lin YH, Hwang JL, Huang LW, Seow KM (2003) Successful laparoscopic management of a huge ovarian tumor in the 27th week of pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med 48:834–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Mathevet P, Nessah K, Dargent D, Mellier G (2003) Laparoscopic management of adnexal masses in pregnancy: a case series. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 108:217–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Scheib SA, Jones HH, Boruta DM, Simpson K, Bedaiwy M, Grumbine FC, Fader AN (2013) Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for management of adnexal masses in pregnancy: case series. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 20:701–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Lee JH, Lee JR, Jee BC, Suh CS, Kim SH (2013) Safety and feasibility of a single-port laparoscopic adnexal surgery during pregnancy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 20:864–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Dursun P, Gulumser C, Caglar M, Araz C, Zeyneloglu H, Haberal A (2013) Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for acute adnexal pathology during pregnancy: preliminary experience. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 26:1282–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    De Santis M, Licameli A, Spagnuolo T, Scambia G (2013) Laparoscopic management of a large, twisted, ovarian dermoid cyst during pregnancy: a case report. J Reprod Med 58:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Struyk AP, Treffers PE (1984) Ovarian tumors in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 63:421–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Nichols DH, Julian PJ (1985) Torsion of the adnexa. Clin Obstet Gynecol 28:375–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Takeda A, Hayashi S, Imoto S, Sugiyama C, Nakamura H (2014) Pregnancy outcomes after emergent laparoscopic surgery for acute adnexal disorders at less than 10 weeks of gestation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 40:1281–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Mage G, Canis M, Manhes H, Pouly JL, Bruhat MA (1989) Laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion. A review of 35 cases. J Reprod Med 34:520–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Garzarelli S, Mazzuca N (1994) One laparoscopic puncture for treatment of ovarian cysts with adnexal torsion in early pregnancy. A report of two cases. J Reprod Med 39:985–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Morice P, Louis-Sylvestre C, Chapron C, Dubuisson JB (1997) Laparoscopy for adnexal torsion in pregnant women. J Reprod Med 42:435–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Abu-Musa A, Nassar A, Usta I, Khalil A, Hussein M (2001) Laparoscopic unwinding and cystectomy of twisted dermoid cyst during second trimester of pregnancy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 8:456–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Bassil S, Steinhart U, Donnez J (1999) Successful laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion during week 25 of a twin pregnancy. Hum Reprod 14:855–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Argenta PA, Yeagley TJ, Ott G, Sondheimer SJ (2000) Torsion of the uterine adnexa. Pathologic correlations and current management trends. J Reprod Med 45:831–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Tarraza HM, Moore RD (1997) Gynecologic causes of the acute abdomen and the acute abdomen in pregnancy. Surg Clin North Am 77:1371–1394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Oelsner G, Bider D, Goldenberg M, Admon D, Mashiach S (1993) Long-term follow-up of the twisted ischemic adnexa managed by detorsion. Fertil Steril 60:976–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Cappell MS, Friedel D (2003) Abdominal pain during pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 32:1–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Practice ACoO (2011) ACOG Committee Opinion No. 474: nonobstetric surgery during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 117:420–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J (2008) Obstetrician-gynecologists’ practices regarding preterm birth at the limit of viability. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 21:115–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Weissmann-Brenner A, Haiman S, Ayala MM, Gindes L, Achiron R, Sivan E, Barzilay E (2015) Maternal medical compromise during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 28:1202–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Katz VL, Farmer RM (1999) Controversies in tocolytic therapy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 42:802–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Berkman ND, Thorp JM Jr, Lohr KN, Carey TS, Hartmann KE, Gavin NI, Hasselblad V, Idicula AE (2003) Tocolytic treatment for the management of preterm labor: a review of the evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:1648–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Tan TC, Devendra K, Tan LK, Tan HK (2006) Tocolytic treatment for the management of preterm labour: a systematic review. Singapore Med J 47:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Romero R, Sibai BM, Sanchez-Ramos L, Valenzuela GJ, Veille JC, Tabor B, Perry KG, Varner M, Goodwin TM, Lane R, Smith J, Shangold G, Creasy GW (2000) An oxytocin receptor antagonist (atosiban) in the treatment of preterm labor: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with tocolytic rescue. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182:1173–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Illanes SE, Perez-Sepulveda A, Rice GE, Mitchell MD (2014) Preterm labour: association between labour physiology, tocolysis and prevention. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 23:759–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Ehsanipoor RM, Shrivastava VK, Lee RM, Chan K, Galyean AM, Garite TJ, Rumney PJ, Wing DA (2011) A randomized, double-masked trial of prophylactic indomethacin tocolysis versus placebo in women with premature rupture of membranes. Am J Perinatol 28:473–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE et al (2008) GRADE working group. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 336:924–926PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan P. Pearl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raymond R. Price
    • 2
  • Allison E. Tonkin
    • 3
  • William S. Richardson
    • 4
  • Dimitrios Stefanidis
    • 5
  1. 1.University of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Intermountain Medical CenterMurrayUSA
  4. 4.Ochsner Medical CenterJeffersonUSA
  5. 5.Indiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations