Laparoscopic colectomy in obese patients: a comparison of laparoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic techniques
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Recent American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP)-based evidence indicates that laparoscopic (LAP) colectomy results in improved outcomes compared to hand-assisted laparoscopic (HAL) colectomy in the general population. Previous comparative studies demonstrated that the HAL technique offers distinct advantages for obese patients. The aim of this study was to perform comparative analyses of HAL and LAP colectomy and low anterior resection (LAR) in obese patients.
The ACS-NSQIP public use file and targeted colectomy dataset, 2012-2014, were utilized for patients undergoing colectomy and LAR. Only obese patients (BMI > 30) and laparoscopic or hand-assisted operations were included. Patient, operation, and outcome variables were compared in two separate cohorts: colectomy and LAR. Bivariate analysis compared the approaches, followed by multivariable regression.
Of 9610 obese patients included, HAL and LAP colectomy were performed in 3126 and 3793 patients and LAR in 1431 and 1260 patients, respectively. In comparison to LAP colectomy, HAL colectomy patients had increased comorbidities including class 2 and 3 obesity. HAL colectomy was associated with higher overall morbidity (20 vs. 16%, p < 0.001), infectious complications (10.2 vs. 7.7%, p < 0.001), anastomotic leaks (3.0 vs. 2.2%, p = 0.03), and ileus (11 vs. 8%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that overall morbidity (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11–1.44), infectious complications (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.59), and ileus (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12–1.57) were each increased in the HAL colectomy cohort but not different for HAL and LAP LAR.
In comparison to LAP colectomy, the HAL technique is used more often in obese patients with an increased operative risk profile. While inherent bias and unmeasured variables limit the analysis, the available data indicate that the HAL technique is associated with increased perioperative morbidity. Alternatively, HAL and LAP LAR are performed in obese patients with a similar risk profile and result in similar postoperative outcomes.
KeywordsColectomy Obesity Laparoscopic Hand-assisted Colorectal
University of Colorado Surgical Outcomes and Applied Research (SOAR) group for funding and general support, especially Drs. Robert Meguid and Richard Schulick.
Compliance with ethical standards
Drs. Douglas M. Overbey, Michelle L. Cowan, Patrick W. Hosokawa, Brandon C. Chapman, and Jon D. Vogel have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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