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A prospective evaluation of short-term and long-term results from colonic stenting for palliation or as a bridge to elective operation versus immediate surgery for large-bowel obstruction

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Abstract

Background

The efficacy and safety of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement as a bridge to elective surgery or definitive palliation versus emergency operation to treat colorectal obstruction is debated. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with colorectal obstruction treated using different strategies.

Methods

Subjects admitted to the authors’ department with colorectal obstruction (n = 134) were studied prospectively. They underwent endoscopic stenting as a bridge to elective surgery (SEMS group: n = 49) or for definitive palliation (n = 34). A total of 51 patients underwent immediate surgery without stenting (NO-SEMS). Treatment was decided by the senior on-call surgeon.

Results

Placement of SEMS was technically successful in 95.3 % and clinically successful in 98.7 % of cases. The short-term complications in the SEMS group were perforation (n = 1, 1.2 %), migration (n = 4, 4.9 %), occlusion (n = 4, 4.9 %), colon bleeding (n = 3, 3.7 %), and abdominal pain (n = 6, 7.4 %). The postoperative complication rate was 32.7 % in the SEMS group versus 60.8 % in the NO-SEMS group (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in wound infections (26.5 vs 54.9 %; P = 0.004), abdominal abscess (14.3 vs 39.2 %; P = 0.006), respiratory morbidity (10.2 vs 37.3 %; P = 0.002), and intensive care treatment (10.2 vs 33.3 %; P = 0.007). The median postoperative hospital stay was 10 versus 15 days (P = 0.001). The in-hospital mortality rate in both groups was 2 %. Long-term follow-up evaluation showed less incisional hernia (6.3 vs 22.0 %; P = 0.04) and definitive stoma formation (6.3 vs 26.0 %; P = 0.01) in the SEMS group than in the NO-SEMS group, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed a benefit for the SEMS group (log-rank test, 0.004). The long-term SEMS-related complication rate for the palliative patients was 43.8 %. The hospital readmission rate for SEMS complications was 34.4 %. Overall clinical success was 81.2 %.

Conclusions

In case of colorectal obstruction, endoscopic colon stenting as a bridge to elective operation should be considered as the treatment of choice for resectable patients given the significant advantages for short- and long-term outcomes. Palliative stenting is effective but associated with a high rate of long-term complications.

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Acknowledgment

This study was supported by a grant of Milano-Bicocca University. The authors thank Mr. David Costin, Lee Costin, and Iain Styles for proofreading for English grammar and spelling. The authors are grateful to Prof. J. Wesley Alexander for the thoughtful comments and suggestions.

Disclosures

Luca Gianotti, Nicolò Tamini, Luca Nespoli, Matteo Rota, Elisa Bolzonaro, Roberto Frego, Alessandro Redaelli, Laura Antolini, Antonella Ardito, Angelo Nespoli, and Marco Dinelli have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Gianotti, L., Tamini, N., Nespoli, L. et al. A prospective evaluation of short-term and long-term results from colonic stenting for palliation or as a bridge to elective operation versus immediate surgery for large-bowel obstruction. Surg Endosc 27, 832–842 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-012-2520-0

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