Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy has been applied as a surgical option for autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Prior identification and fine division of the thymic veins are critical to the prevention of unexpected severe bleeding that may require conversion to open surgery. Until recently, such bleeding could be avoided only by meticulous dissection of thymic fat tissue away from the left brachiocephalic vein (LBV). With recent advances in computed tomography (CT), multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) can readily be obtained and provides three-dimensional (3D) images. This study explored its value for preoperative identification of the thymic veins draining into the LBV, and thus for prevention of injury to these veins during endoscopic thymectomy.
Five patients with myasthenia gravis, thymoma, or both underwent enhanced MDCT preoperatively. The thymic veins draining into the LBV were visualized using both horizontal and sagittal/coronal CT images. Then 3D images were reconstructed to enable operators to simulate endoscopic views. During each VATS extended thymectomy, the numbers and branching patterns of the thymic veins were compared with the preoperative MDCT images.
The thymic veins draining into the LBV were clearly identified with MDCT in all five patients examined. Reconstructed 3D images clearly located their courses in the thymic/fat tissue and their entry routes into the LBV, thus simulating the actual intraoperative endoscopic views. All tributaries divided during surgery were identified preoperatively with MDCT.
Location of thymic veins with MDCT can provide precise preoperative information about thymic venous anatomy. This easy and less invasive examination has the potential to make VATS thymectomy easier and safer.
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We thank N. Willcox, Professor of Oxford University for his great help in preparing the manuscript.
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Shiono, H., Inoue, A., Tomiyama, N. et al. Safer video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy after location of thymic veins with multidetector computed tomography. Surg Endosc 20, 1419–1422 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-005-0659-7