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The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI)—Normative Values. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


As the dysphagia handicap index (DHI) becomes more commonly used in clinical practice as a diagnostic tool, it is essential to establish the normative value of DHI. The main purpose of this study is to determine the normative value of DHI among subjects who had no history of dysphagia or neurological disease as well as no history of head or neck malignancy. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect to access relevant databases and to locate outcome studies. Eligibility criteria included type of publication, participant characteristics and report of outcomes. Data analysis were conducted using meta-analysis method. Five articles were included for the final analysis. The normative value of DHI was 2.49 with confidence interval of 0.51–4.48 for a group of 323 subjects, age range of 20–86 years.

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The authors of the manuscript report no biomedical financial interests. The present work had no financial support.

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Correspondence to Maria Sobol.

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Sobol, M., Kober, A.M. & Sielska-Badurek, E.M. The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI)—Normative Values. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Dysphagia 36, 1005–1009 (2021).

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