, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 663–677 | Cite as

Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Jaw and Hyolingual Apparatus During Swallowing in Macaca mulatta

  • Yuki Nakamura
  • Jose Iriarte-Diaz
  • Fritzie Arce-McShane
  • Courtney P. Orsbon
  • Kevin A. Brown
  • McKenna Eastment
  • Limor Avivi-Arber
  • Barry J. Sessle
  • Makoto Inoue
  • Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos
  • Callum F. Ross
  • Kazutaka Takahashi
Original Article


Studies of mechanisms of feeding behavior are important in a society where aging- and disease-related feeding disorders are increasingly prevalent. It is important to evaluate the clinical relevance of animal models of the disease and the control. Our present study quantifies macaque hyolingual and jaw kinematics around swallowing cycles to determine the extent to which macaque swallowing resembles that of humans. One female and one male adult Macaca mulatta were trained to feed in a primate chair. Videofluoroscopy was used to record kinematics in a sagittal view during natural feeding on solid food, and the kinematics of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, mandibular jaw, and anterior-, middle-, and posterior-tongue. Jaw gape cycles were defined by consecutive maximum gapes, and the kinematics of the swallow cycles were compared with those of the two consecutive non-swallow cycles preceding and succeeding the swallow cycles. Although there are size differences between macaques and humans, and macaques have shorter durations of jaw gape cycles and hyoid and thyroid upward movements, there are several important similarities between our macaque data and human data reported in the literature: (1) The durations of jaw gape cycles during swallow cycles are longer than those of non-swallow cycles as a result of an increased duration of the jaw-opening phase; (2) Hyoid and thyroid upward movement is linked with a posterior tongue movement and is faster during swallow than non-swallow cycles; (3) Tongue elevation propagates from anterior to posterior during swallow and non-swallow cycles. These findings suggest that macaques can be a useful experimental model for human swallowing studies.


Deglutition Deglutition disorders Feeding Animal models Macaque monkeys Swallowing kinematics 



We thank Dr. Jason Lee and Dr. Kate Murray for assistance with the experiments. We thank the veterinary staff of the University of Chicago for animal care. This work was supported by CIHR Grant MOP-4918, NIH RO1DE023816, a grant from the Brain Research Foundation, and a grant from JSPS (Program for Advancing Strategic International Networks to Accelerate the Circulation of Talented Researchers).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 9576 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuki Nakamura
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jose Iriarte-Diaz
    • 3
  • Fritzie Arce-McShane
    • 1
  • Courtney P. Orsbon
    • 1
  • Kevin A. Brown
    • 4
  • McKenna Eastment
    • 5
  • Limor Avivi-Arber
    • 6
  • Barry J. Sessle
    • 6
  • Makoto Inoue
    • 2
  • Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos
    • 1
    • 7
  • Callum F. Ross
    • 1
  • Kazutaka Takahashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Organismal Biology and AnatomyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Dysphagia RehabilitationNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  3. 3.Department of Oral BiologyUniversity of Illinois at Chicago College of DentistryChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Center for Neural ScienceNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Division of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  6. 6.Department of DentistryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  7. 7.Committee on Computational NeuroscienceUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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