Animal Models for Dysphagia Studies: What Have We Learnt So Far
- 646 Downloads
Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in and day out care about this work? Results from studies of animal models have the potential to change and grow how we think about dysphagia research and practice in general, well beyond applying specific results to human studies. Animal research provides two key contributions to our understanding of dysphagia. The first is a more complete characterization of the physiology of both normal and pathological swallow than is possible in human subjects. The second is suggesting of specific, physiological, targets for development and testing of treatment interventions to improve dysphagia outcomes.
KeywordsAnimal models Performance Pathophysiology Deglutition Deglutition disorders
The work of the authors has been supported by multiple grants from the NIH over the last 40 years, including AR18140, DC3604, DC6953, DC9980, DE5526, DE 5738, DE7325, and HD8856. We dedicate this paper to our late colleague and mentor Dr. Karen Hiiemae.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
- 20.Inokuchi H, Gonzalez-Fernandez M, Matsuo K, Brodsky MB, Yoda M, Taniguchi H, Okazaki H, Hiraoka T, Palmer JB. Electromyography of swallowing with fine wire intramuscular electrodes in healthy human: activation sequence of selected hyoid muscles. Dysphagia. 2014;29(6):713–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Inokuchi H, Gonzalez-Fernandez M, Matsuo K, Brodsky MB, Yoda M, Taniguchi H, Okazaki H, Hiraoka T, Palmer JB. Electromyography of swallowing with fine wire intramuscular electrodes in healthy human: amplitude difference of selected hyoid muscles. Dysphagia. 2016;31(1):33–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Magara J, Michou E, Raginis-Zborowska A, Inoue M, Hamdy S. Exploring the effects of synchronous pharyngeal electrical stimulation with swallowing carbonated water on cortical excitability in the human pharyngeal motor system. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28(9):1391–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 51.Walston J, Hadley EC, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Newman AB, Studenski SA, Ershler WB, Harris T, Fried LP. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American geriatrics society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on frailty in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(6):991–1001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar