, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 27–38 | Cite as

History of Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing for Evaluation and Management of Pharyngeal Dysphagia: Changes over the Years

  • Susan E. LangmoreEmail author

A Personal Note

Back in 1988, when the first description of the FEES procedure was published [1], otolaryngologists had just started to use fiberoptic laryngoscopes in their practice. Prior to fiberoptic technology, laryngoscopy was performed with a mirror or more invasive direct laryngoscopy instruments. The first fiberoptic laryngoscope is generally credited to Sawashima and Hirose in 1968. It transformed the practice of laryngoscopy by allowing a transnasal approach with the patient conscious during the procedure and providing a view of the vocal folds during natural speech.

Commercial fiberoptic laryngoscopes were not commonly available until the 1980s. I was practicing in Ann Arbor Michigan at the time. In our ENT clinic, the rigid mirror exam was the first exam administered—and if indicated, a transoral laryngoscope was used. Over a relatively short period of time, however, the fiberoptic laryngoscope became the exam of choice for viewing anatomy, physiology, and for biopsies of...


Deglutition Deglutition disorders Dysphagia Endoscopic FEES Oropharyngeal 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Departement of Speech Language Hearing Sciences, Sargent CollegeBoston UniversityBostonUSA

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