, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 213–222 | Cite as

Effect of Carbonated Beverages on Pharyngeal Swallowing in Young Individuals and Elderly Inpatients

  • Motoyoshi Morishita
  • Sanae Mori
  • Shota Yamagami
  • Masatoshi Mizutani
Original Article


Gustatory and chemical stimulations of the oral cavity and pharyngeal mucosa by carbonated water improve pharyngeal swallowing. We compared changes in pharyngeal swallowing and sensory aspects induced by a carbonated beverage preferred by Japanese with those induced by carbonated water, a sports drink, and tap water in healthy young subjects and elderly inpatients with no swallowing problems. The duration of laryngeal elevation (DOLE) for swallowing the carbonated beverage and water in the second session was shorter compared to that for water in the first session in the elderly subjects. The DOLE and the duration of suprahyoid muscle activity for swallowing were longer in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects for all beverages. Beverages that the subjects subjectively felt were easy to swallow were the sports drink and carbonated beverage, whereas they stated that carbonated water was less easy to swallow. In the elderly subjects, swallowing ability latently decreased, even though they had no problem swallowing in their daily lives, and it was assumed that the carbonated beverage improved pharyngeal swallowing. In addition, the carbonated beverage also influenced the subsequent swallowing of water, showing a persistent effect. It was suggested that carbonated beverages are easy to swallow and effective for the improving pharyngeal swallowing.


Deglutition Deglutition disorders Sensory stimulation Carbonated beverages 


  1. 1.
    Miller RF, Sherrington CS. Some observations on the bucco-pharyngeal stage of reflex deglutition in the cat. Q J Exp Physiol. 1916;9:147–86.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pommerenke WT. A study of the sensory areas eliciting the swallowing reflex. Am J Physiol. 1928;84:36–41.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Storey AT. Laryngeal initiation of swallowing. Exp Neurol. 1968;20:359–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bassler R. Histopathology of different types of atrophy of the human tongue. Pathol Res Pract. 1987;182:87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malmgren LT, Fisher PJ, Bookman LM, Uno T. Age-related changes in muscle fiber types in the human thyroarytenoid muscle: an immunohistochemical and stereological study using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;121:441–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bardan E, Xie P, Brasseur J, et al. Effect of ageing on the upper and lower oesophageal sphincters. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;12:1221–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Newton J, Yemm R. Age changes in contractile properties of masseter muscle in man. J Oral Rehabil. 1990;17:204–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vaiman M, Eviatar E, Segal S. Surface electromyographic studies of swallowing in normal subjects: a review of 440 adults. Report 1. Quantitative data: timing measures. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131:548–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takeda N, Thomas GR, Ludlow CL. Aging effects on motor units in the human thyroarytenoid muscle. Laryngoscope. 2000;110:1018–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wohlert AB. Tactile perception of spatial stimuli on the lip surface by young and older adults. J Speech Hear Res. 1996;39:1191–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smith CH, Logemann JA, Burghardt WR, Zecker SG, Rademaker AW. Oral and oropharyngeal perceptions of fluid viscosity across the age span. Dysphagia. 2006;21:209–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chauhan J, Hawrysh ZJ. Suprathreshold sour taste intensity and pleasantness perception with age. Physiol Behav. 1988;43:601–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    LaFratta CW, Canestrari R. A comparison of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities as related to age. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1966;47:286–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Veis SL, Logemann JA. Swallowing disorders in persons with cerebrovascular accident. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985;66:372–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arai T, Yoshimi N, Fujiwara H, Sekizawa K. Serum substance P concentrations and silent aspiration in elderly patients with stroke. Neurology. 2003;61:1625–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sciortino K, Liss JM, Case JL, Gerritsen KG, Katz RC. Effects of mechanical, cold, gustatory, and combined stimulation to the human anterior faucial pillars. Dysphagia. 2003;18:16–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lazzara G, Lazarus C, Logemann JA. Impact of thermal stimulation on the triggering of the swallowing reflex. Dysphagia. 1986;1:73–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosenbek JC, Roecker EB, Wood JL, Robbins J. Thermal application reduces the duration of stage transition in dysphagia after stroke. Dysphagia. 1996;11:225–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ding R, Logemann JA, Larson CR, Rademaker AW. The effects of taste and consistency on swallow physiology in younger and older healthy individuals: a surface electromyographic study. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2003;46:977–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bülow M, Olsson R, Ekberg O. Videoradiographic analysis of how carbonated thin liquids and thickened liquids affect the physiology of swallowing in subjects with aspiration on thin liquids. Acta Radiol. 2003;44:366–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miura Y, Morita Y, Koizumi H, Shingai T. Effects of taste solutions, carbonation, and cold stimulus on the power frequency content of swallowing submental surface electromyography. Chem Senses. 2009;34:325–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hasselbalch H, Jørgensen F, Wamberg T, Hey H. Alternatives to optimal administration of tablets. Acta Med Scand. 1985;217:527–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Michou E, Mastan A, Ahmed S, Mistry S, Hamdy S. Examining the role of carbonation and temperature on water swallowing performance: a swallowing reaction-time study. Chem Senses. 2012;37:799–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jennings KS, Siroky D, Jackson CG. Swallowing problems after excision of tumors of the skull base: diagnosis and management in 12 patients. Dysphagia. 1992;7:40–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krival K, Bates C. Effects of club soda and ginger brew on linguapalatal pressures in healthy swallowing. Dysphagia. 2012;27:228–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sdravou K, Walshe M, Dagdilelis L. Effects of carbonated liquids on oropharyngeal swallowing measures in people with neurogenic dysphagia. Dysphagia. 2012;27:240–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Colangelo L, Lazarus C, Fujiu M, Kahrilas PJ. Effects of a sour bolus on oropharyngeal swallowing measures in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. J Speech Hear Res. 1995;38:556–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Palmer PM, McCulloch TM, Jaffe D, Neel AT. Effects of a sour bolus on the intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles in the submental region. Dysphagia. 2005;20:210–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pelletier CA, Dhanaraj GE. The effect of taste and palatability on lingual swallowing pressure. Dysphagia. 2006;21:121–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Teramoto S, Matsuse T, Fukuchi Y, Ouchi Y. Simple two-step swallowing provocation test for elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia. Lancet. 1999;353:1243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Teramoto S, Fukuchi Y. Detection of aspiration and swallowing disorder in older stroke patients: simple swallowing provocation test versus water swallowing test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81:1517–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takagi M, Miyaoka Y, Haishima K, Haishima H, Matsunaga K, Yamada Y. Analysis of swallowing movement using a simple and safe device. J Jpn Soc Stomatognath Funct. 2001;8:25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miyaoka Y, Haishima K, Takagi M, Haishima H, Asari J, Yamada Y. Influences of thermal and gustatory characteristics on sensory and motor aspects of swallowing. Dysphagia. 2006;21:38–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oguchi K, Saitoh E, Mizuno M, Baba M, Okui M, Suzuki M. The repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST) as a screening test of functional dysphagia (1) normal values of RSST. Jpn J Rehabil Med. 2000;37:375–82 [in Japanese].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miller AJ. Deglutition. Physiol Rev. 1982;62:129–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jacob P, Kahrilas PJ, Logemann JA, Shah V, Ha T. Upper esophageal sphincter opening and modulation during swallowing. Gastroenterology. 1989;97:1469–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gay T, Rendell JK, Spiro J, Mosier K, Lurie AG. Coordination of oral cavity and laryngeal movements during swallowing. J Appl Physiol. 1994;77:357–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Simons CT, Dessirier JM, Carstens MI, O’Mahony M, Carstens E. Neurobiological and psychophysical mechanisms underlying the oral sensation produced by carbonated water. J Neurosci. 1999;19:8134–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dessirier JM, Simons CT, Carstens MI, O’Mahony M, Carstens E. Psychophysical and neurobiological evidence that the oral sensation elicited by carbonated water is of chemogenic origin. Chem Senses. 2000;25:277–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chandrashekar J, Yarmolinsky D, von Buchholtz L, et al. The taste of carbonation. Science. 2009;326:443–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kitagawa J, Shingai T, Takahashi Y, Yamada Y. Pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a major role in reflex swallowing from the pharynx. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;282:R1342–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kaatzke-McDonald MN, Post E, Davis PJ. The effects of cold, touch, and chemical stimulation of the anterior faucial pillar on human swallowing. Dysphagia. 1996;11:198–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shingai T, Miyaoka Y, Ikarashi R, Shimada K. Swallowing reflex elicited by water and taste solutions in humans. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:R822–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kajii Y, Shingai T, Kitagawa J, et al. Sour taste stimulation facilitates reflex swallowing from the pharynx and larynx in the rat. Physiol Behav. 2002;77:321–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nejad MS. The neural activities of the greater superficial petrosal nerve of the rat in response to chemical stimulation of the palate. Chem Senses. 1986;11:283–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Frank ME, Bieber SL, Smith DV. The organization of taste sensibilities in hamster chorda tympani nerve fibers. J Gen Physiol. 1988;91:861–96.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mistry S, Rothwell JC, Thompson DG, Hamdy S. Modulation of human cortical swallowing motor pathways after pleasant and aversive taste stimuli. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G666–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Babaei A, Kern M, Antonik S, et al. Enhancing effects of flavored nutritive stimuli on cortical swallowing network activity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G422–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Humbert IA, Robbins J. Dysphagia in the elderly. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2008;19:853–66.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shaker R, Ren J, Zamir Z, Sarna A, Liu J, Sui Z. Effect of aging, position, and temperature on the threshold volume triggering pharyngeal swallows. Gastroenterology. 1994;107:396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shaker R, Ren J, Bardan E, et al. Pharyngoglottal closure reflex: characterization in healthy young, elderly and dysphagic patients with predeglutitive aspiration. Gerontology. 2003;49:12–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robbins J, Hamilton JW, Lof GL, Kempster GB. Oropharyngeal swallowing in normal adults of different ages. Gastroenterology. 1992;103:823–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Motoyoshi Morishita
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sanae Mori
    • 2
  • Shota Yamagami
    • 2
  • Masatoshi Mizutani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical TherapyKibi International UniversityTakahashiJapan
  2. 2.Rehabilitation Center, Watanabe HospitalShiseikai Medical CorporationNiimiJapan

Personalised recommendations