Skip to main content

Morphologic Characteristics of Palatopharyngeal Muscle

Abstract

In an effort to clarify the morphologic characteristics of the palatopharyngeal muscle, we examined its origin, insertion, and positional relationship with other muscles. We found that the origin of the palatopharyngeal muscle was both the oral and the nasal side of the soft palate; it was also attached to both the palatal aponeurosis and the soft palate median. However, in some cases the muscle originated on the nasal side was lacked. When the palatopharyngeal muscle originated from both the oral and the nasal side, it traveled through its insertion via the levator muscle of the palatine velum. This insertion was seen in a wide area and could be divided into three parts: the pharynx anterior, central, and posterior walls. In the central pharyngeal wall, insertion into the pharyngeal aponeurosis, inferior constrictor pharyngeal muscle, and esophagus were observed. The present results suggest that the palatopharyngeal muscle has a close positional relationship with the levator and tensor muscles of the palatine velum, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and the esophagus.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. Tsumori N, Abe S, Agematsu H, Hashimoto M, Ide Y. Morphologic characteristics of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle in relation to the function during swallowing. Dysphagia 2007;22(2):122–129.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Shimada K, Gasser RF. Morphology of the pterygomandibular raphe in human fetuses and adults. Anat Rec 1989;224:117–122.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Bosma JF, Donner MW, Tanaka E, Robertson D. Anatomy of the pharynx, pertinent to swallowing. Dysphagia 1986;1:23–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hollinshead WH. Anatomy of the pharynx and esophagus. In: English GM (ed.), Otolaryngology, Vol. 3. Philadelphia: Harper and Row, 1985, pp 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Kuehn DP, Kahane JC. Histologic study of the normal human adult soft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 1990;27(1):26–35.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Kuehn DP, Moon JB. Histologic study of intravelar structures in normal human adult specimens. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005;42(5):481–489.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kahrilas PJ. Pharyngeal structure and function. Dysphagia 1993;8:303–307.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Colangelo LA, Kahrilas PJ, Smith CH. Temporal and biomechanical characteristics of oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older men. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2000;43:1264–1274.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Williams PL. Gray’s Anatomy, 38th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1995, p 628.

    Google Scholar 

  10. McMyn JK. The anatomy of the salpingo-pharyngeus muscle. J Laryngol Otol 1940;55:1–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Casey DM. Palatopharyngeal anatomy and physiology. J Prosthet Dent 1983;49:371–378.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Bernard Liebgott M. The anatomical basis of dentistry. Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1986, pp 335–365.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Putz R, Pabst R. Sobotta Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1, 13th ed. Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 2001, p 138.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Agur AMR, Dalley AF. Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, 11th ed. New York: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005, pp 764–766.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Abe M, Murakami G, Noguchi M, Kitamura S, Shimada K, Kohama G. Variations in the tensor veli palatini muscle with special reference to its origin and insertion. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2004;41(5):474–484.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Shimokawa T, Yi S, Tanaka S. Nerve supply to the soft palate muscles with special reference to the distribution of the lesser palatine nerve. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005;42(5):495–500.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Whillis J. A note of the muscles of the palate and the superior constrictor. J Anat 1930;65:92–95.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Ohtsuka K, Tomita H, Murakami G. Anatomy of the tonsillar bed – topographical relationship between the palatine tonsil and the lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2002;546:99–109.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cassell MD, Moon JB, Elkadi H. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharynx. In: Bardach J, Morris HL (eds.), Multidisciplinary Management of Cleft Lip, Palate. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1990, pp 366–377.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

These studies were supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 19592131, S. Abe) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan, by the Foundation of Japan Medical Association, by Oral Health Science Center Grant HRC7 (S. Abe) from Tokyo Dental College, and by a “High-Tech Research Center” Project for Private Universities matching fund subsidy from MEXT, 2006-2011.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shinichi Abe.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Okuda, S., Abe, S., Kim, HJ. et al. Morphologic Characteristics of Palatopharyngeal Muscle. Dysphagia 23, 258–266 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-007-9133-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-007-9133-0

Keywords

  • Palatopharyngeal muscle
  • Palatal muscles
  • Soft palate
  • Swallowing
  • Pharynx
  • Levator muscle of palatine velum
  • Tensor muscle of palatine velum
  • Deglutition
  • Deglutition disorders