Cardiovascular Effects of the Supraglottic and Super-supraglottic Swallowing Maneuvers in Stroke Patients with Dysphagia
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The prolonged voluntary closure of the glottis during the supraglottic and super-supraglottic swallowing techniques may create the Valsalva maneuver. The Valsalva maneuver has been associated with sudden cardiac death and cardiac arrhythmias. This study describes the effects of the supraglottic and super-supraglottic swallowing techniques on the cardiovascular system. Subjects included 23 patients from an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Subject groups included recent stroke, dysphagia, and a history of coronary artery disease (Group 1, N = 11), recent stroke and dysphagia with no known coronary artery disease (Group 2, N = 4), and orthopedic diagnosis with no known dysphagia or coronary artery disease (Group 3, N = 8). Cardiac status was moni-tored for 4 hours during swallowing training, regular therapy sessions, and a meal. For Groups 1 and 2, 86.6% (13 out of 15) of the subjects demonstrated abnormal cardiac findings during the swallowing session including supraventricular tachycardia, premature atrial contractions, and premature ventricular contractions. Arrhythmia subsided within a few minutes after the session and did not occur during other activities. In Group 3 (control group), none of the subjects demonstrated abnormal cardiac findings except for bradycardia in one subject. It is suggested that the supraglottic and super-supraglottic swallow maneuvers may be contraindicated for patients with a history of stroke or coronary artery disease.
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