Computer Science - Research and Development

, Volume 33, Issue 1–2, pp 215–221 | Cite as

Provision of frequency containment reserve with an aggregate of air handling units

  • Julian RomingerEmail author
  • Fabian Kern
  • Hartmut Schmeck
Special Issue Paper


Following political strategy changes with the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the German power system has experienced a great penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources. The volatile electricity generation of renewable energy sources requires greater flexibility not only on the electricity supply but also on the demand side. The ventilation of buildings represents a largely untapped resource for demand response measures such as control reserve. Due to the quick reaction speed and inertia of the air balance of supplied buildings, electric motors of air handling units qualify to provide frequency containment reserve. In this paper we present a system architecture according to standards by the German transmission system operators to provide frequency containment reserve with an aggregate of air handling units. At an industrial site containing workshop and office buildings a prototype of the system has been installed and prequalified by the transmission system operators to provide almost 300 kW of frequency containment reserve.


Frequency containment reserve Air handling unit Demand response Balancing reserve 



The authors would like to thank the BMW Group for the possibility to carry out the joint research project SmartFlex. In particular, the authors are grateful to Michael Müller-Ruff and Dr. Michael Beer for their cooperation.


  1. 1.
    Ali M, Safdarian A, Lehtonen M (2014) Demand response potential of residential HVAC loads considering users preferences. In: IEEE PES innovative smart grid technologies, Europe, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barooah P, Buic A, Meyn S (2015) Spectral decomposition of demand-side flexibility for reliable ancillary services in a smart grid. In: IEEE (HICSS), 2015 48th Hawaii international conference on system sciences, pp 2700–2709Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Callaway DS, Hiskens IA (2011) Achieving controllability of electric loads. Proc IEEE 99(1):184–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Consentec GmbH (2014) Beschreibung von Regelleistungskonzepten und RegelleistungsmarktGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ENTSOE (2009) Operation handbook, P1 policy 1: load-frequency control and performance [C]Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fleer J, Stenzel P (2016) Impact analysis of different operation strategies for battery energy storage systems providing primary control reserve. J Energy Storage 8:320–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galus MD, Koch S, Andersson G (2011) Provision of load frequency control by PHEVs, controllable loads, and a cogeneration unit. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(10):4568–4582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glau, M (2016) Regelleistung aus Wind. Systemdienstleistungen für das Stromnetz bis 2030 die Rolle von Kleinanlagen und Erneuerbare Energien-Anlagen am Energieforschungszentrum NiedersachsenGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gobmaier T (2017) Netzfrequenz als Indikator für die Stabilität des Verbundnetzes. In: 10 Internationale Energiewirtschaftstagung an der TU Wien (IEWT 2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hao H, Kowli A, Lin Y, Barooah P, Meyn S (2013) Ancillary service for the grid via control of commercial building hvac systems. In: IEEE on American control conference (ACC), 2013, pp 467–472Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim YJ, Norford LK, Kirtley JL (2015) Modeling and analysis of a variable speed heat pump for frequency regulation through direct load control. IEEE Trans Power Syst 30(1):397–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koliou E, Eid C, Chaves-vila JP, Hakvoort RA (2014) Demand response in liberalized electricity markets: analysis of aggregated load participation in the German balancing mechanism. Energy 71:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin Y, Barooah P, Meyn S, Middelkoop T (2015) Experimental evaluation of frequency regulation from commercial building HVAC systems. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 6(2):776–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lu N, Zhang Y (2013) Design considerations of a centralized load controller using thermostatically controlled appliances for continuous regulation reserves. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 4(2):914–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Makarov YV, Loutan C, Ma J, Mello Pd (2009) Operational impacts of wind generation on California power systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 24(2):1039–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Motegi N, Piette MA, Watson DS, Kiliccote S, Xu P (2007) Introduction to commercial building control strategies and techniques for demand response. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL-59975Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oldewurtel F, Borsche T, Bucher M, Fortenbacher P, Haring MGVT, Haring T, Mathieu JL, Mgel O, Vrettos E, Andersson G (2013) A framework for and assessment of demand response and energy storage in power systems. In: IEEE 2013 IREP symposium bulk power system dynamics and control-IX optimization, security and control of the emerging power grid (IREP), pp 1–24Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perfumo C, Kofman E, Braslavsky JH, Ward JK (2012) Load management: model-based control of aggregate power for populations of thermostatically controlled loads. Energy Converv Manag 55:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Regelleistungnet (2016) Internetplattform zur Vergabe von RegelleistungGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Verband der Netzbetreiber (2016) Eckpunkte und Freiheitsgrade bei Erbringung von PrimaerregelleistungGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vrettos E, Koch S, Andersson G (2012) Load frequency control by aggregations of thermally stratified electric water heaters. In: 2012 3rd IEEE pes innovative smart grid technologies Europe (ISGT Europe), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vrettos E, Oldewurtel F, Zhu F, Andersson G (2014) Robust provision of frequency reserves by office building aggregations. IFAC Proc 47(3):12068–12073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhao C, Topcu U, Li N, Low S (2014) Design and stability of load-side primary frequency control in power systems. IEEE Trans Autom Control 59(5):1177–1189MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhao P, Henze G, Brandemuehl M, Cushing V, Plamp S (2015) Dynamic frequency regulation resources of commercial buildings through combined building system resources using a supervisory control methodology. Energy Build 86:137–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FZI Research Center for Information TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations