Computer Science - Research and Development

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 185–193

Optimizing performance-per-watt on GPUs in high performance computing

Temperature, frequency and voltage effects
  • D. C. Price
  • M. A. Clark
  • B. R. Barsdell
  • R. Babich
  • L. J. Greenhill
Special Issue Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00450-015-0300-5

Cite this article as:
Price, D.C., Clark, M.A., Barsdell, B.R. et al. Comput Sci Res Dev (2016) 31: 185. doi:10.1007/s00450-015-0300-5

Abstract

The magnitude of the real-time digital signal processing challenge attached to large radio astronomical antenna arrays motivates use of high performance computing (HPC) systems. The need for high power efficiency at remote observatory sites parallels that in HPC broadly, where efficiency is a critical metric. We investigate how the performance-per-watt of graphics processing units (GPUs) is affected by temperature, core clock frequency and voltage. Our results highlight how the underlying physical processes that govern transistor operation affect power efficiency. In particular, we show experimentally that GPU power consumption increases non-linearly (quadratic) with both temperature and supply voltage, as predicted by physical transistor models. We show lowering GPU supply voltage and increasing clock frequency while maintaining a low die temperature increases the power efficiency of an NVIDIA K20 GPU by up to 37–48 % over default settings when running xGPU, a compute-bound code used in radio astronomy. We discuss how automatic temperature-aware and application-dependent voltage and frequency scaling (T-DVFS and A-DVFS) may provide a mechanism to achieve better power efficiency for a wider range of compute codes running on GPUs.

Keywords

Performance per watt Power efficiency Radio astronomy HPC GPU DVFS  

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Price
    • 1
  • M. A. Clark
    • 2
  • B. R. Barsdell
    • 1
  • R. Babich
    • 2
  • L. J. Greenhill
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 42CambridgeUSA
  2. 2.NVIDIASanta ClaraUSA

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