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Immobilization of Serratia plymuthica by ionic gelation and cross-linking with transglutaminase for the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose


Isomaltulose is an alternative sugar obtained from sucrose using some bacteria producing glycosyltransferase. This work aimed to optimize conditions for the immobilization of Serratia plymuthica through ionic gelation and cross-linking by transglutaminase using the sequential experimental strategy for the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose. The effect of five variables (concentrations of cell mass, alginate, gelatin, transglutaminase, and calcium chloride) was studied, as well as the interactions between them on the matrix composition for the S. plymuthica immobilization. Three experimental designs were used to optimize the concentrations of each variable to obtain higher concentration of isomaltulose. A high conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose (71.04%) was obtained by the cells immobilized in a matrix composed of alginate (1.7%), CaCl2 (0.25 mol/L), gelatin (0.5%), transglutaminase (3.5%) and cell mass (33.5%). As a result, the transglutaminase application as a cross-linking agent improved the immobilization of Serratia plymuthica cells and the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose.

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The data supporting the results of this study will be made available by the corresponding author, upon reasonable request.


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This work was supported in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001 (PROEX process number 23038.000795/2018-61). The authors would like to thank the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas.

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Authors and Affiliations



All authors contributed to the development of this research, as follows: PHC: Conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis, investigation, data curation, writing—original draft, writing—review and editing. HYK: Methodology, formal analysis, investigation, and data curation. WFCS: Conceptualization, investigation, writing—review and editing. HHS: Conceptualization, resources, writing—original draft, writing—review and editing, supervision, project administration, and funding acquisition.

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Correspondence to Weysser Felipe Cândido de Souza.

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Carvalho, P.H., Kawaguti, H.Y., de Souza, W.F.C. et al. Immobilization of Serratia plymuthica by ionic gelation and cross-linking with transglutaminase for the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 44, 1109–1118 (2021).

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  • Serratia plymuthica
  • Glycosyltransferases
  • Immobilization
  • Ionic gelation