Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 529–539 | Cite as

Red yeast rice fermentation with Bacillus subtilis B2 under blue light-emitting diodes increases antioxidant secondary products (Manuscript ID: BPBSE-18-0387)

  • Punniyakotti Elumalai
  • Yool-Jin Park
  • Min ChoEmail author
  • Patrick J. Shea
  • Byung-Taek OhEmail author
Research Paper


Light and bacteria can be used in combination to enhance secondary metabolite production during fermentation. Red yeast rice powder (RYRP) was inoculated with Bacillus subtilis (B2) isolated from freshwater seafood and incubated under light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different colors (blue, green, red, white), fluorescent white light, and in darkness. Blue LED-mediated fermentation with B2 significantly enhanced production of phenolic compounds (68.4 ± 1 mg GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (51.7 ± 1 mg QE/g DW) compared to white light and darkness. Total antioxidant activity of RYRP extract after fermentation with B2 was > 77%; hydroxyl radical and superoxide scavenging were > 66%. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical scavenging activities were 51% and > 67%, respectively. Reducing power was approximately twice that of extract from RYRP without B2. FTIR analysis showed a high content of hydroxyl, nitrile and carboxylic groups in the extract. Derivatives of cinnamic, benzoic and phophinodithioic acid, and quinazolinone were identified by GC–MS. Findings show that fermenting RYRP with B. subtilis B2 under blue LEDs enhances production of secondary metabolites, which should have applications in industrial fermentation processes.


Antioxidant Bacillus subtilis Light-emitting diodes Phenolic compounds Red yeast rice powder 



This work was supported by the BK21 plus program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea. This work was supported by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Public Technology Program based on Environmental Policy, funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2018000700001).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource SciencesChonbuk National UniversityIksanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Ecology Landscape Architecture-Design, College of Environmental and Bioresource SciencesChonbuk National UniversityIksanSouth Korea
  3. 3.School of Natural ResourcesUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

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