Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 1621–1634 | Cite as

Enzyme-catalysed production of n-butyl palmitate using ultrasound-assisted esterification of palmitic acid in a solvent-free system

  • Nishat R. Khan
  • Sarita D. Gawas
  • Virendra K. RathodEmail author
Research Paper


This work exhibits the implementation of ultrasound technology in solvent-free synthesis study of n-butyl palmitate using Fermase CALB™10000. Sequential experimental design study was instrumental in determining the most significant process variables. The effect of acid–alcohol molar ratio, enzyme dose, temperature, power and duty cycle on the reaction kinetics was studied. Highest conversion of ~ 96.6% was observed in 50 min at 1:1 molar ratio of palmitic acid to n-butanol, 70 °C temperature, 4% w/w enzyme loading, 40 W power, 70% duty cycle, 25 kHz frequency and 100 rpm speed of impeller. Ping-pong bisubstrate model showed the best fit with kinetic parameters, Vmax = 21.88 M/min/g catalyst, KA = 0.011 M, KB = 8.74M, KiA = 0.014M, KiB = 0.00036M and SSE = 0.0000193. Ultrasound reduced the reaction time by over 70%. The enzyme was reusable for four successive cycles after which it showed decline in conversion.


n-Butyl palmitate Lipase Ultrasound Plackett–Burman RSM 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors whose names are listed certify that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nishat R. Khan
    • 1
  • Sarita D. Gawas
    • 1
  • Virendra K. Rathod
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

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