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Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 917–929 | Cite as

Oxygen uptake rate as a tool for on-line estimation of cell biomass and bed temperature in a novel solid-state fermentation bioreactor

  • Sidharth Arora
  • Pritam Singh
  • Richa Rani
  • Sanjoy Ghosh
Research Paper

Abstract

Direct measurement of cell biomass is difficult in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) process involving filamentous fungi since the mycelium and the solid substrate are often inseparable. However, respiratory data are rich in information for real-time monitoring of microbial biomass production. In this regard, a correlation was obtained between oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and biomass concentration (X) of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 1987, during phytase production, in an intermittently mixed novel SSF bioreactor. To obtain the correlation, various models describing sigmoidal growth were tested, namely the logistic, Gompertz, Stannard, and Schnute models. Regression analysis of experimental results, at different operating conditions of inlet air flow rate and relative humidity suggested that OUR and X were correlated well by the logistic model (R2 > 0.90). To corroborate the use of respiratory data for on-line measurement of metabolic activity, OUR was related to metabolic heat generation rate (Rq), and the logistic model was found to satisfactorily correlate Rq and X as well. The model parameter, YQ/X, when substituted into a heat transfer design equation, along with the values of other parameters and operating variables, gave reliable estimates of bed temperature. The correlations developed in the present study, between respiratory activity and biomass concentration may be extended on to other SSF processes for further validation and real-time monitoring of cell biomass and bed temperature.

Keywords

Solid-state fermentation SSF bioreactor Cell biomass Bed temperature Phytase OUR 

Abbreviations

Bi

Dimensionless biot number

CER

Carbon dioxide evolution rate

CFU

Colony forming units

g-ds

Gram-dry-solid

kg-ds

Kilogram-dry-solid

MTCC

Microbial type culture collection

OUR

Oxygen uptake rate

PBR

Packed bed bioreactor

PDA

Potato dextrose agar

PSM

Phytase screening media

RH

Relative humidity

SmF

Submerged fermentation

SSF

Solid-state fermentation

TB

Tray bioreactor

Cpa

Heat capacity of the air

Cps

Heat capacity of the substrate

Cpb

Heat capacity of the bed

f

Change in water carrying capacity with temperature (dHsat/dT)

H

Reactor bed height

Hsat

Moisture content in saturated air

Ka

Thermal conductivity of the air

Ks

Thermal conductivity of the substrate

Kb

Thermal conductivity of the bed

mo

Maintenance coefficient for O2

mQ

Maintenance coefficient for heat

r

Radial distance

R

Bioreactor radius

R2

Coefficient of determination

Rq

Metabolic heat generation rate

T

Temperature

t

Time

To or Tin

Initial bed temperature

Ts

Temperature of surrounding

U

Units of enzyme

Vz

Superficial air velocity

X

Biomass concentration

Xm

Maximum biomass concentration

Xo

Initial biomass concentration

YQ/X

Yield of metabolic heat from growth

Yx/o

Yield of biomass from O2

z

Axial distance

ϵ

Void fraction in the bed

λ

Enthalpy of vaporization of water

ρa

Density of air

ρs

Density of substrate

ρb

Density of the bed

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance provided by Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IITR) and Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) for carrying out this work. Authors are also thankful to the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, for funding the filing of patent, for the proposed SSF bioreactor system (Patent File No. 201611020038, dated 11th June 2016).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no competing interest.

Supplementary material

449_2018_1923_MOESM1_ESM.doc (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 24 KB)
449_2018_1923_MOESM2_ESM.tif (958 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (TIF 957 KB)
449_2018_1923_MOESM3_ESM.tif (833 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (TIF 832 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidharth Arora
    • 1
  • Pritam Singh
    • 1
  • Richa Rani
    • 1
  • Sanjoy Ghosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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