Optimization of biodiesel synthesis by esterification using a fermented solid produced by Rhizopus microsporus on sugarcane bagasse
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A fermented solid containing lipases was produced by solid-state fermentation of Rhizopus microsporus on sugarcane bagasse enriched with urea, soybean oil, and a mineral solution. The dry fermented solid produced using R. microsporus (RMFS) was used to catalyze the synthesis of alkyl-esters by esterification in a solvent-free system containing ethanol and oleic acid (as a model system) or a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the physical hydrolysis of soybean soapstock acid oil (FA-SSAO) in subcritical water. The conversions were 93.5 and 84.1%, for oleic acid and FA-SSAO, respectively, at 48 h and 40 °C, at a molar ratio (MR) of ethanol to fatty acid of 5:1. A further increase in the MR to 10:1 improved the production of ethylic-esters, giving conversions at 48 h of 98 and 86% for oleic acid and FA-SSAO, respectively. The results obtained in this work foster further studies on scaling-up of an environmentally friendly process to produce biofuels.
KeywordsLipases Solid-state fermentation Rhizopus microsporus Esterification Biodiesel
Research scholarships were granted to Nadia Krieger and David Mitchell by CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Brasil) and to Vanderleia Botton by CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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