Advertisement

Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 309–318 | Cite as

Comparison of soluble microbial products released from activated sludge and aerobic granular sludge systems in the presence of toxic 2,4-dichlorophenol

  • Na Wu
  • Dong Wei
  • Yongfang Zhang
  • Weiying Xu
  • Tao Yan
  • Bin Du
  • Qin Wei
Research Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the release of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in the absence and presence of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Data implied that NH4 +-N removal efficiencies remarkably decreased to 53.8% and 36.4% after the addition of 2,4-DCP, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3D-EEM) implied that three major components (tryptophan protein-like, humic-like and fulvic-like substances) were identified in SMP without the addition of 2,4-DCP. And aromatic protein-like substances appeared after the addition of 2,4-DCP in both systems. Synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the behavior of released protein-like fraction and fulvic-like fraction was different in both systems. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) suggested that protein-like fraction and fulvic-like fraction preferred to be released in both systems. The results could reveal the characterization of SMP and be better to improve the effluent quality from wastewater treatment system in the presence of toxic compound.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Soluble microbial products (SMP) Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) Excitation–emission matrix (EEM) Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377046), Special project of independent innovation and achievements transformation of Shandong Province (2014ZZCX05101), Science and technology development plan project of Shandong province (2014GGH217006), Shanghai Tongji Gao Tingyao Environmental Science and Technology Development Foundation (STGEF), and QW thanks the Special Foundation for Taishan Scholar Professorship of Shandong Province and UJN (No. ts20130937).

References

  1. 1.
    Chong NM, Lin TY (2007) Measurement of the degradation capacity of activated sludge for a xenobiotic organic. Bioresour Technol 98:1124–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sun W, Cupples AM (2012) Diversity of five anaerobic toluene-degrading microbial communities investigated using stable isotope probing. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:972–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sun W, Sun X, Cupples AM (2012) Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading microorganisms identified in wastewater treatment plant samples by stable isotope probing. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:2973–2980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tanghe T, Devriese G, Verstraete W (1998) Nonylphenol degradation in lab scale activated sludge units is temperature dependent. Water Res 32:2889–2896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Urase T, Kikuta T (2005) Separate estimation of adsorption and degradation of pharmaceutical substances and estrogens in the activated sludge process. Water Res 39:1289–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ensley HE, Barber JT, Polito MA, Oliver AI (1994) Toxicity and metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the aquatic angiosperm Lemna gibba. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chabaliná LD, Pastor MR, Rico DP (2013) Characterization of soluble and bound EPS obtained from 2 submerged membrane bioreactors by 3D-EEM and HPSEC. Talanta 115:706–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barker DJ, Stuckey DC (1999) A review of soluble microbial products (SMP) in wastewater treatment systems. Water Res 33:3063–3082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aquino SF, Stuckey DC (2004) Soluble microbial products formation in anaerobic chemostats in the presence of toxic compounds. Water Res 38:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xu J, Luo HW, Wang YK, Sheng GP (2015) Fluorescence approach for investigating binding properties between metals and soluble microbial products from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Process Biochem 50:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wen-Ming X, Bing-Jie N, Thomas S, Han-Qing Y (2012) Evaluating the impact of operational parameters on the formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge. Water Res 47:1073–1079Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barker DJ, Stuckey DC (2001) Modeling of soluble microbial products in anaerobic digestion: the effect of feed strength and composition. Water Environ Res 73:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maszenan AM, Yu L, Ng WJ (2011) Bioremediation of wastewaters with recalcitrant organic compounds and metals by aerobic granules. Biotechnol Adv 29:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dong W, Xue X, Chen S, Zhang Y, Yan L, Wei Q, Du B (2013) Enhanced aerobic granulation and nitrogen removal by the addition of zeolite powder in a sequencing batch reactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:9235–9243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Valli K, Gold MH (1991) Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J Bacteriol 173:345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tay JH, Liu QS, Liu Y (2002) Characteristics of aerobic granules grown on glucose and acetate in sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactors. Environ Technol 23:931–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dong W, Wang B, Ngo HH, Guo W, Fei H, Wang X, Du B, Qin W (2015) Role of extracellular polymeric substances in biosorption of dye wastewater using aerobic granular sludge. Bioresour Technol 185C:14–20Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu Y, Yang SF, Tay JH (2004) Improved stability of aerobic granules by selecting slow-growing nitrifying bacteria. J Biotechnol 108:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eaton A, Clesceri LS, Rice EW, Greenberg AE, Franson M (2005) APHA: standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Centennial edn. APHA, AWWA, WEF, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Noda I, Ozaki Y (2004) Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy—applications in vibrational and optical spectroscopy. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma B, Wang S, Cao S, Miao Y, Jia F, Du R, Peng Y (2016) Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox: recent advances. Bioresour Technol 200:981–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dong W, Wang Y, Wang X, Li M, Fei H, Ju L, Ge Z, Li S, Kai L, Wang B (2015) Toxicity assessment of 4-chlorophenol to aerobic granular sludge and its interaction with extracellular polymeric substances. J Hazard Mater 289:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kargi F, Eker S, Uygur A (2005) Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2, 4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit. J Environ Manag 76:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bassin JP, Kleerebezem R, Dezotti M, Van Loosdrecht MCM (2012) Measuring biomass specific ammonium, nitrite and phosphate uptake rates in aerobic granular sludge. Chemosphere 89:1161–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shi Y-J, Wang X-H, Qi Z, Diao M-H, Gao M-M, Xing S-F, Wang S-G, Zhao X-C (2011) Sorption and biodegradation of tetracycline by nitrifying granules and the toxicity of tetracycline on granules. J Hazard Mater 191:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gao D, Liu L, Liang H, Wu WM (2011) Aerobic granular sludge: characterization, mechanism of granulation and application to wastewater treatment. Crit Rev Biotechnol 31:137–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wen C, Paul W, Leenheer JA, Karl B (2004) Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 37:5701–5710Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dong W, Li S, Tao Y, Ge Z, Wang Y, Du B (2014) Aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor. Bioresour Technol 171:211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yi JC, Mei FC, Law CL, Hassell DG (2009) A review on anaerobic–aerobic treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Chem Eng J 155:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang ZP, Zhang T (2010) Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMP) under stressful conditions. Water Res 44:5499–5509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nossal NG, Heppel LA (1966) The release of enzymes by osmotic shock from escherichia coli in exponential phase. J Biol Chem 241:3055–3062Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li Y, Li AM, Xu J, Li WW, Yu HQ (2013) Formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge at various salinities. Biodegradation 24:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Han JC, Liu Y, Liu X, Zhang Y, Yan YW, Dai RH, Zha XS, Wang CS (2012) The effect of continuous Zn (II) exposure on the organic degradation capability and soluble microbial products (SMP) of activated sludge. J Hazard Mater 244–245:489–494. J Hazard Mater 244:489–494Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chi Z, Liu R, Yang B, Hao Z (2010) Toxic interaction mechanism between oxytetracycline and bovine hemoglobin. J Hazard Mater 180:741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carstea EM, Bridgeman J, Baker A, Reynolds DM (2016) Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: a review. Water Res 95:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zeng RJ, Sheng GP, Ni BJ, Fang F, Xie WM, Yu HQ (2010) Fractionating soluble microbial products in the activated sludge process. Water Res 44:2292–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yu H, Song Y, Xiang T, Du E, Liu R, Peng J (2013) Assessing removal efficiency of dissolved organic matter in wastewater treatment using fluorescence excitation emission matrices with parallel factor analysis and second derivative synchronous fluorescence. Bioresour Technol 144:595–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li S, Dong W, Ngo HH, Guo W, Du B, Qin W (2015) Application of anaerobic granular sludge for competitive biosorption of methylene blue and Pb(II): Fluorescence and response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol 194:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kirwan GM, Clark S, Barnett NW, Niere JO, Adams MJ (2008) Generalised 2D-correlation NMR analysis of a wine fermentation. Anal Chim Acta 629:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of JinanJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of JinanJinanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations