Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 223–231 | Cite as

High throughput de novo RNA sequencing elucidates novel responses in Penicillium chrysogenum under microgravity

  • Yesupatham Sathishkumar
  • Chandran Krishnaraj
  • Kalyanaraman Rajagopal
  • Dwaipayan Sen
  • Yang Soo LeeEmail author
Original Paper


In this study, the transcriptional alterations in Penicillium chrysogenum under simulated microgravity conditions were analyzed for the first time using an RNA-Seq method. The increasing plethora of eukaryotic microbial flora inside the spaceship demands the basic understanding of fungal biology in the absence of gravity vector. Penicillium species are second most dominant fungal contaminant in International Space Station. Penicillium chrysogenum an industrially important organism also has the potential to emerge as an opportunistic pathogen for the astronauts during the long-term space missions. But till date, the cellular mechanisms underlying the survival and adaptation of Penicillium chrysogenum to microgravity conditions are not clearly elucidated. A reference genome for Penicillium chrysogenum is not yet available in the NCBI database. Hence, we performed comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum grown under microgravity versus normal gravity. In addition, the changes due to microgravity are documented at the molecular level. Increased response to the environmental stimulus, changes in the cell wall component ABC transporter/MFS transporters are noteworthy. Interestingly, sustained increase in the expression of Acyl-coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase (Acyltransferase) under microgravity revealed the significance of gravity in the penicillin production which could be exploited industrially.


Penicillium chrysogenum RNA-Seq Microgravity ABC transporter Acyl-coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase 



We would like to thank Genotypic technologies Pvt Limited for the NGS services. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant No. 1201002578 funded by the Korean Government and Sathish Kumar was supported by university research grants from the Chonbuk national university.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

449_2015_1506_MOESM1_ESM.doc (252 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 252 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yesupatham Sathishkumar
    • 1
  • Chandran Krishnaraj
    • 2
  • Kalyanaraman Rajagopal
    • 3
  • Dwaipayan Sen
    • 4
    • 5
  • Yang Soo Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Forest Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyVels UniversityChennaiIndia
  4. 4.School of Biosciences and TechnologyVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  5. 5.Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular and Molecular TheranosticsSchool of Biosciences and Technology, VIT UniversityVelloreIndia

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