Skip to main content

Microbial transformation and sorption of anthracene in liquid culture


Armillaria sp. F022, a white-rot fungus isolated from decayed wood in tropical rain forest was used to biodegrade anthracene in cultured medium. The percentage of anthracene removal by Armillaria sp. F022 reached 13 % after 7 days and at the end of the experiment, anthracene removal level was at 87 %. The anthracene removal through sorption and transformation was investigated. 69 % of eliminated anthracene was transformed by Armillaria sp. F022 to form other organic structure, while only 18 % was absorbed in the mycelia. In the kinetic experiment, anthracene dissipation will not stop even though the biomass had stopped growing. Anthracene removal by Armillaria sp. F022 was correlated with protein concentration (whole biomass) in the culture. The production of enzyme was affected by biomass production. Anthracene was transformed to two stable metabolic products. The metabolites were extracted in ethyl-acetate, isolated by column chromatography, and then identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    Doyle E, Muckian L, Mickey AM, Clipson N (2008) Microbial PAH degradation. Adv Appl Microbiol 65:27–66

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Miller KP, Borgeest C, Greenfield C, Tomic D, Flaws JA (2004) In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:111–131

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Jacques RJS, Santos EC, Bento FM, Peralba MCR, Selbach PA, Sa′ ELS, Camargo FAO (2005) Anthracene biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp. isolated from a petrochemical sludge landfarming. Int Biodegrad Biodeterior 56:143–156

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cajthaml T, Erbanova P, Sasek V, Moeder M (2006) Breakdown products on metabolic pathway of degradation of benz[a]anthracene by a ligninolytic fungus. Chemosphere 64:560–564

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ramsay JA, Hao L, Brown RS, Ramsay BA (2003) Naphthalene and anthracene mineralization linked to oxygen, nitrate, Fe(II) and sulphate reduction in a mixed microbial population. Biodegradation 14:321–329

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Budavari S, O’Neil JM, Smith A, Heckehman EP, Kinneary JF (1996) The Merck index, 12th edn. Merck Research Laboratory Division, Whitehouse Station

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Luning Prak DJ, Pritchard PH (2002) Solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in micellar nonionic surfactant solution. Water Res 36:3463–3472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kristanti RA, Hadibarata T, Toyama T, Tanaka Y, Mori K (2011) Bioremediation of crude oil by white rot fungi Polyporus sp. S133. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:995–1000

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hadibarata T, Yusoff ARM, Aris A, Kristanti RA (2012) Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022. J Environ Sci 24:728–732

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Head IM, Jones DM, Roling WFM (2006) Marine microorganisms make a meal of oil. Nat Rev Microbiol 4:173–182

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Evans WC, Fernley HN, Griffits E (1965) Oxidative metabolism of phenanthrene and anthracene by soil pseudomonads. Biochem J 98:819–831

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Hadibarata T, Khudhair AB, Salim MR (2012) Breakdown products in the metabolic pathway of anthracene degradation by a ligninolytic fungus Polyporus sp. S133. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:2201–2208

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Pointing SB (2001) Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:20–33

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Obruca S, Marova I, Matouskova P, Haronikova A, Lichnova A (2012) Production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes employing Fusarium solani F-552. Folia Microbiol 57:221–227

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Hadibarata T, Yusoff ARM, Aris A, Salmiati, Hidayat T, Kristanti RA (2012) Decolorization of Azo, triphenylmethane and anthraquinone dyes by laccase of a newly isolated Armillaria sp. F022. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:1045–1054

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hadibarata T, Tachibana S, Askari M (2011) Identification of metabolites from phenanthrene oxidation by phenoloxidases and dioxygenases of Polyporus sp. S133. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:299–304

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Wu YR, He TT, Lun JS, Maskaoui K, Huang TW, Hu Z (2009) Removal of benzo[a]pyrene by a fungus Aspergillus sp. BAP14. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25:1395–1401

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Yong LY, Cerniglia CE (2005) Microbial transformation and degradation of toxic organic chemicals. Wiley-Liss, New York

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Samanta SK, Chakrabarti AK, Jain RK (1999) Degradation of phenanthrene by different bacteria: evidence for novel transformation sequences involving the formation of 1-naphthol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53:98–107

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Jim AF, Ronald HV, John GVZ, Wim HR (1996) The tolerance of lignin peroxidase and manganese-dependent peroxidase to miscible solvents and the in vitro oxidation of anthracene in solvent: water mixtures. Enzyme Microb Technol 18:300–308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fentem JH, Fry JR (1993) Species differences in the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of coumarin. Comp Biochem Physiol 104:1–8

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Floc’h F, Mauger F, Desmurs JR, Gard A, Bagneris F, Carlton B (2002) Coumarin in plants and fruits: implications in perfumery. Perfum Flavor 27:32–37

    Google Scholar 

Download references


A part of this project was financially supported by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (RUG Vote QJ1.3000.2522.02H65).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tony Hadibarata.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hadibarata, T., Zubir, M.M.F.A., Rubiyatno et al. Microbial transformation and sorption of anthracene in liquid culture. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 36, 1229–1233 (2013).

Download citation


  • Anthracene degradation
  • Biotransformation
  • Coumarin and dihydroxynaphthalene
  • Dissipation potential
  • Sorption