Fallout deposits in the vicinity of the southern Andean Hudson Volcano record at least 12 explosive Holocene eruptions, including that of August 1991 which produced ≥4 km3 of pyroclastic material. Medial isopachs of compacted fallout deposits for two of the prehistoric Hudson eruptions, dated at approximately 3600 and 6700 BP, enclose areas at least twice that of equivalent isopachs for both the 1991 Hudson and the 1932 Quizapu eruptions, the two largest in the Andes this century. However, lack of information for either the proximal or distal tephra deposits from these two prehistoric eruptions of Hudson precludes accurate volume estimates. Andesitic pyroclastic material produced by the 6700-BP event, including a 1 10-cm-thick layer of compacted tephra that constitutes a secondary thickness maximum over 900 km to the south in Tierra del Fuego, was dispersed in a more southerly direction than that of the 1991 Hudson eruption. The products of the 6700-BP event consist of a large proportion of fine pumiceous ash and accretionary lapilli, indicating a violent phreatomagmatic eruption. This eruption, which is considered to be the largest for Hudson and possibly for any volcano in the southern Andes during the Holocene, may have created Hudson's 10-km-diameter summit caldera, but the age of the caldera has not been dated independently.
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Received: 31 January 1997 / Accepted: 29 October 1997
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Naranjo, J., Stern, C. Holocene explosive activity of Hudson Volcano, southern Andes. Bull Volcanol 59, 291–306 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/s004450050193