Skip to main content
Log in

Did ice-charging generate volcanic lightning during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska?

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Bulletin of Volcanology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The 2016–2017 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano in Alaska injected plumes of ash and seawater to maximum heights of ~ 12 km. More than 4550 volcanic lightning strokes were detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and Vaisala’s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) over 9 months. Lightning assisted monitoring efforts by confirming ash-producing explosions in near-real time, but only 32 out of the 70 explosive events produced detectable lightning. What led to electrical activity within some of the volcanic plumes, but not others? And why did the lightning intensity wax and wane over the lifetime of individual explosions? We address these questions using multiparametric observations from ground-based lightning sensors, satellite imagery, photographs, acoustic signals, and 1D plume modeling. Detailed time-series of monitoring data show that the plumes did not produce detectable lightning until they rose higher than the atmospheric freezing level (approximated by − 20 °C temperatures). For example, on 28 May 2017 (event 40), the delayed onset of lightning coincides with modeled ice formation in upper levels of the plume. Model results suggest that microphysical conditions inside the plume rivaled those of severe thunderstorms, with liquid water contents > 5 g m−3 and vigorous updrafts > 40 m s−1 in the mixed-phase region where liquid water and ice coexist. Based on these findings, we infer that ‘thunderstorm-style’ collisional ice-charging catalyzed the volcanic lightning. However, charge mechanisms likely operated on a continuum, with silicate collisions dominating electrification in the near-vent region, and ice charging taking over in the upper-level plumes. A key implication of this study is that lightning during the Bogoslof eruption provided a reliable indicator of sustained, ash-rich plumes (and associated hazards) above the atmospheric freezing level.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Similar content being viewed by others


Download references


We wish to thank the World Wide Lightning Location Network (, a collaboration among over 50 universities and institutions, for providing WWLLN lightning location data. We also thank Vaisala, Inc. for providing the GLD360 data used in this study. Michael Pavolonis (NOAA/NESDIS) is acknowledged for plume height retrievals using Himawari-8. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their thorough comments, which greatly improved the manuscript. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Data used in this study are provided in the references, tables, and Supplementary Material.


Funding for the study was provided by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. RHH also received funding from NASA grant 80NSSC19K0407.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexa R. Van Eaton.

Additional information

Editorial responsibility: K. Wallace; Special Issue Editor N. Fournier

This paper constitutes part of a topical collection: The 2016-17 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska

Electronic supplementary material


(DOCX 317 kb).


(XLSX 832 kb).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Van Eaton, A.R., Schneider, D.J., Smith, C.M. et al. Did ice-charging generate volcanic lightning during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska?. Bull Volcanol 82, 24 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: