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Table 2 Holocene (GVP) volcanoes within 25 km of a border and with > 10,000 people living within 10 km, with population rounded to nearest hundred

From: Volcanoes on borders: a scientific and (geo)political challenge

Volcano name Country/countries Population 10 km Population 25 km Population 100 km Activity evidence Last known eruption
Muhavura Uganda-Rwanda (DRC) 201,200 947,000 1,184,800 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Apaneca Range El Salvador (Guatemala) 160,900 787,400 226,000 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Nyiragongo* DR Congo (Rwanda, Uganda) 143,300 1,767,500 5,861,200 Eruption
Observed
2017 CE
Fort Portal Uganda (DRC) 146,800 542,200 2,453,300 Eruption
Dated
2120 BCE
Bufumbira Uganda (Rwanda, DRC) 135,500 623,100 10,302,000 Evidence
Uncertain
Unknown
Tajumulco Guatemala (Mexico) 101,800 747,500 6,602,300 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Karisimbi* DRC-Rwanda (Uganda) 90,800 866,500 2,552,000 Eruption
Dated
8050 BCE
San Diego El Salvador-Guatemala 58,000 156,900 7,423,200 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Olot Volcanic Field Spain (France) 49,000 118,500 6,261,700 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Chingo Guatemala-El Salvador 51,000 696,100 6,820,400 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Visoke DRC-Rwanda (Uganda) 47,600 825,900 10,522,000 Eruption
Observed
1957 CE
Suchitan Guatemala (El Salvador) 48,900 294,300 8,216,200 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Tshibinda DR Congo (Rwanda, Burundi) 41,400 1,059,700 7,898,200 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Dallol* Ethiopia (Eritrea) 42,440 42,440 1,055,500 Eruption
Observed
2011 CE
Quezaltepeque Guatemala (Honduras, El Salvador) 38,100 215,200 3,542,100 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Kilimanjaro Tanzania (Kenya) 35,600 369,000 3,286,900 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Paektu/Changbaishan* China-DPR Korea 33,300 37,400 1,552,200 Eruption
Observed
1903 CE
Tacana Mexico-Guatemala 32,700 426,900 6,420,400 Eruption
Observed
1986 CE
Ipala Guatemala (El Salvador, Honduras) 27,000 193,500 6,811,000 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Cumbal Colombia (Ecuador) 23,300 146,200 164,400 Eruption
Observed
1926 CE
Moyuta Guatemala (El Salvador) 25,200 223,200 4,138,000 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Liamuiga Saint Kitts and Nevis (Dutch Antilles) 22,400 44,600 173,300 Eruption
Dated
160 CE
Santa Ana El Salvador (Guatemala) 21,000 1,043,800 6,206,300 Eruption
Observed
2005 CE
Ch’uga-ryong* DPRK-South Korea 20,000 181,100 14,256,600 Evidence
Uncertain
Unknown
Ixtepeque Guatemala (Honduras, El Salvador) 16,600 222,200 6,849,200 Evidence
Credible
Unknown
Kazbek* Georgia (Russia) 13,300 336,000 6,054,200 Eruption
Dated
750 BCE
Bombalai Malaysia (Philippines) 11,400 423,100 1,048,500 Evidence
Uncertain
Unknown
Nabro* Eritrea (Ethiopia) 10,000 18,100 56,300 Eruption
Observed
2012 CE
  1. Evidence for Holocene eruptions and last known eruption dates (taken from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Network database; Siebert and Simkin (1994)) are also indicated. Nation-states in bold outside the brackets indicate volcano location; bracketed ones are those nearby. Asterisks by the volcano name indicate that the border is either contested or in a region of conflict or tension. Population data are from the JRC database as noted in the methods