Bulletin of Volcanology

, 80:42 | Cite as

Distribution and mass of tephra-fall deposits from volcanic eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano based on posteruption surveys

  • Masayuki Oishi
  • Kuniaki Nishiki
  • Nobuo Geshi
  • Ryuta Furukawa
  • Yoshihiro Ishizuka
  • Teruki Oikawa
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
  • Futoshi Nanayama
  • Akiko Tanaka
  • Akinari Hirota
  • Takahiro Miwa
  • Yasuo Miyabuchi
Research Article
  • 124 Downloads

Abstract

We estimate the total mass of ash fall deposits for individual eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano, southwest Japan based on distribution maps of the tephra fallout. Five ash-sampling campaigns were performed between 2011 and 2015, during which time Sakurajima continued to emit ash from frequent Vulcanian explosions. During each survey, between 29 and 53 ash samplers were installed in a zone 2.2–43 km downwind of the source crater. Total masses of erupted tephra were estimated using several empirical methods based on the relationship between the area surrounded by a given isopleth and the thickness of ash fall within each isopleth. We obtained 70–40,520 t (4.7 × 10−8–2.7 × 10−5-km3 DRE) as the minimum estimated mass of erupted materials for each eruption period. The minimum erupted mass of tephra produced during the recorded events was calculated as being 890–5140 t (5.9 × 10−7–3.6 × 10−6-km3 DRE). This calculation was based on the total mass of tephra collected during any one eruptive period and the number of eruptions during that period. These values may thus also include the contribution of continuous weak ash emissions before and after prominent eruptions. We analyzed the meteorological effects on ash fall distribution patterns and concluded that the width of distribution area of an ash fall is strongly controlled by the near-ground wind speed. The direction of the isopleth axis for larger masses is affected by the local wind direction at ground level. Furthermore, the wind direction influences the direction of the isopleth axes more at higher altitude. While a second maximum of ash fall can appear, the influence of rain might only affect the finer particles in distal areas.

Keywords

Ash fall Distribution Isopleth Erupted mass Sakurajima Volcano Wind effect 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We express our gratitude to the Sakurajima Volcano Research Center of Kyoto University, Kagoshima Local Meteorological Observatory of Japan Meteorological Agency and to the Sabo Branch Office of Osumi Office of the River, and National Highway in Sakurajima. The present study was supported by the result of “Research and Development of Margin Assessment Methodology of Decay Heat Removal Function against External Hazards” entrusted to the Japan Atomic Energy Agency by the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT). We also thank R. Sulpizio, S. Mueller, and S. Self for their helpful reviews and advice for our manuscript.

Supplementary material

445_2018_1215_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (922 kb)
Appendix 1 Detailed information on the eruptions that occurred during the surveys of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. Data are from the Kagoshima Local Meteorological Observatory of the Japan Meteorological Agency. (JPEG 922 kb)
445_2018_1215_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (783 kb)
Appendix 2 Weight results from the surveys in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. For each period, the values in the left column show the weight of samples (g), while those in the right column show the weight per unit area (g/m2). (JPEG 782 kb)
445_2018_1215_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (JPEG 1322 kb)
445_2018_1215_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (899 kb)
ESM 2 (JPEG 899 kb)
445_2018_1215_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (982 kb)
ESM 3 (JPEG 981 kb)
445_2018_1215_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (1.2 mb)
ESM 4 (JPEG 1237 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masayuki Oishi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kuniaki Nishiki
    • 1
    • 3
  • Nobuo Geshi
    • 1
  • Ryuta Furukawa
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Ishizuka
    • 1
  • Teruki Oikawa
    • 1
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Futoshi Nanayama
    • 1
  • Akiko Tanaka
    • 1
  • Akinari Hirota
    • 1
    • 3
  • Takahiro Miwa
    • 4
  • Yasuo Miyabuchi
    • 5
  1. 1.Geological Survey of JapanNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Geography, Faculty of Geo-Environmental ScienceRissho UniversitySaitamaJapan
  3. 3.Secretariat of the Nuclear Regulation AuthorityTokyoJapan
  4. 4.National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster PreventionTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of EducationKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan

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