The anatomy of a pyroclastic density current: the 10 July 2015 event at Volcán de Colima (Mexico)
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) represent one of the most dangerous phenomena occurring in explosive volcanic eruptions, and any advance in the physical understanding of their transport and sedimentation processes can contribute to improving their hazard assessment. The 10–11 July 2015 eruption at Volcán de Colima provided a unique opportunity to better understand the internal behaviour of PDCs based on seismic monitoring data. On 10 July 2015, the summit dome collapsed, producing concentrated PDCs that filled the main channel of the Montegrande ravine. A lahar monitoring station installed 6 km from the volcano summit recorded a PDC before being completely destroyed. Real-time data acquisition from a camcorder and a geophone that were part of the station, along with field observations and grain-size data of the pyroclastic deposits, are used here to interpret the internal flow structure and time-variant transport dynamics of low-volume, valley-confined concentrated PDCs. The PDC that reached the monitoring station moved at a velocity of ~ 7 m/s and filled a 12-m-deep channel. The outcrops show massive, block-and-ash flow deposits with trains of coarse clasts in the middle and towards the top of the depositional units. The seismic record gathered with the geophone was analysed for the time window when the flow travelled past the sensor. The geophone record was also compared with the recordings of a broadband seismic station located nearby. Two main frequency ranges were recognised which could be correlated with the basal frictional forces exerted by the flow on the channel bed (10–20 Hz) and a collisional regime (20–40 Hz) interpreted to be associated with a clast segregation process (i.e. kinematic squeezing). This latter regime promoted the upward migration of large blocks, which subsequently deviated towards the margin of the flow where they interacted with the sidewall of the main channel. The energy calculated for both seismic components shows that the collisional regime represents 30% of the total energy including an important sidewall-stress component. These results, gathered directly from a moving flow, contribute to unravelling the internal behaviour of concentrated PDCs providing information on energy partitioning and particle-particle interactions. This confirms previous assumptions inferred from field observations, and tested by analogue or numerical modelling. The nature of the contact between grains is still poorly documented in natural PDCs, and there is still much uncertainty and discussion about dominant forces in such currents. Data reported here may thus be useful to better constrain the physics of low-volume, valley-confined concentrated PDCs and our findings need to be considered in theoretical models. In parallel, this study shows how geophones can provide a cheap alternative for PDC detection.
KeywordsVolcán de Colima Pyroclastic density currents Geophone Energy partitioning Particle-particle interaction
The Montegrande and La Lumbre monitoring sites are managed by L. Capra in collaboration with G. Reyes at the RESCO seismological network of Volcán Universidad de Colima and the Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED). This manuscript benefited from the constructive reviews of S. Charbonnier, an anonymous reviewer. G. Lube as associate editor and A. Harris as executive editor have made a remarkable contribution to make this paper more readable and attractive.
This work was supported by the PAPIIT-DGAPA IN105116 project granted to L. Capra. V. Coviello is grateful for his DGAPA-UNAM postdoctoral fellowship, and D. Doronzo for his Juan de la Cierva contract (JdC 2015) – MINECO. The SPOT image was obtained through a collaborative agreement between the UNAM and the Agrifood-Fishery Mexican Service (SIAP) - ERMEX, under the license of “Airbus Defense & Space”.
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