Deposits, petrology and mechanism of the 2010–2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka, Russia

Abstract

Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka is well known as a source of highly heterogeneous poorly mingled magmas ranging from dacites to basaltic andesites. In 2010–2013, the volcano produced its first historical magmatic eruption with the deposition of 0.27 km3 of block and ash pyroclastic flows accompanied by slow extrusion of a 200-m-thick, highly viscous (1010–1011 Pa s) block lava flow with a volume of 0.3 km3. The total volume of erupted magma comprised approximately 0.4 km3 DRE. We provide description of the eruption chronology, as well as the lithology and petrology of eruptive products. The erupted material is represented by banded dacite and high-silica andesite. The dacitic magma was formed during a long dormancy after the previous magmatic eruption several hundred years ago with mineral compositions indicating average pre-eruptive temperatures of ~ 810 °C, fO2 of 0.9–1.6 log units above the nickel–nickel oxide (NNO) buffer and shallow crustal storage conditions at ~ 123 MPa. The silica-rich andesite represents a hybrid magma, which shows signs of recent thermal and compositional disequilibrium. We suggest that the hybrid magma started to form in 1963 when a swarm of deep earthquakes indicated an input of mafic magma from depth into the 6–11-km-deep silicic magma chamber. It took the following 46 years until the magma filling the chamber reached an eruptible state. Poor mingling of the two melts is attributed to its unusually high viscosity that could be associated with the pre-eruptive long-term leakage of volatiles from the chamber through a regional tectonic fault. Our investigations have shown that shallow magma chambers of dormant volcanoes demonstrating strong persistent fumarolic activity can contain highly viscous, degassed magma of evolved composition. Reactivation of such magma chambers by injection of basic magma takes a long time (several decades). Thus, eruption forecasts at such volcanoes should include a possibility of long time lag between a swarm of deep earthquakes (indicating the recharge of basic magma from depth) and the following swarm of shallow earthquakes (indicating final ascent of the hybrid magma towards the surface). Due to the high viscosity of the magma, the shallow swarm can last for more than a year. The forthcoming eruption can be of moderate to low explosivity and include extrusion of viscous lava flows and domes composed of poorly mingled magmas of contrasting compositions.

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Acknowledgements

Basic funding for this research was provided by the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (to AB and MB). Our field work at Kizimen volcano in 2012 was funded in part by the NASA “Science of Terra and Aqua” Research Program (NNX14AQ96G) grant to Mike Ramsey. We are also grateful to Mike Ramsey and Steve Anderson for the support and fruitful scientific discussions during the field work. The field work was conducted with permission of the Kronotsky Natural Reserve. We also thank the Kamchatkan Branch of the Russian Geophysical Survey for the time-lapse footage of the eruption obtained with their monitoring camera.

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Correspondence to A. Auer.

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Editorial responsibility: M. Portnyagin

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

List of samples of the 2010-2013 eruption products of KIzimen volcano. (XLSX 10 kb).

ESM 2

Whole rock endmember (XRF) and average matrix glass (EPMA) compositions for dark and light mingled domains in the products of the 2010-2013 eruption of Kizimen and representative mineral compositions. (XLSX 939 kb).

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Auer, A., Belousov, A. & Belousova, M. Deposits, petrology and mechanism of the 2010–2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka, Russia. Bull Volcanol 80, 33 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-018-1199-z

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Keywords

  • Eruption mechanism
  • Pyroclastic flow deposits
  • Viscous lava flow
  • Petrology
  • Kizimen volcano