Seismic signals of rockfalls as indicators of the origin of lava fragments emplaced during the 2010 endogenous and exogenous growth in the crater of Volcán de Colima, México
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The 2010–2011 exogenous emplacement of a lava lobe during the 2007–2011 lava dome growth at andesitic Volcán de Colima, México, interrupted the previous endogenous regime and allowed us to obtain seismic signals associated with rockfalls triggered by both exogenous and endogenous growth. We analyzed a total of 410 seismic signals of rockfalls with durations from 50 to 150 s recorded during January–April 2010. Two characteristic populations of seismic signal peak frequencies were identified: a low frequency (LF) group (mean = 1.76 ± 0.44 Hz) and a high frequency (HF) group (mean = 3.13 ± 0.63 Hz), associated respectively with rockfalls caused by endogenous and exogenous growth in the crater. Application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed at the 0.01 significance level that the databases of LF and HF seismic signals of rockfalls belong to different groups of signals and may be considered as having different origins. The results show that the spectral properties of the seismic signals produced by rockfalls may serve as indicators of the origin of falling lava fragments and thus can be used to monitor effusive volcanic activity.
KeywordsVolcán de Colima Rockfalls Seismic signals Endogenous lava dome growth Exogenous lava dome growth
The comments of the Associate Editor Judy Fierstein and two anonymous reviewers helped us to improve the manuscript. Our English grammar was significantly improved by Judy Fierstein and reviewers. We thank the personnel of the seismic network RESCO for providing the seismic records of Volcán de Colima. The processing of the digital seismic signals was realized using the program DEGTRA provided by Mario Ordaz, UNAM and the Interactive MATLAB software for the analysis of seismic volcanic signals prepared by Philippe Lesage and adapted by Miguel Gonzalez.
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