Subglacial volcanic activity above a lateral dyke path during the 2014–2015 Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun rifting episode, Iceland

Abstract

The rifting episode associated with the Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun eruption in 2014–2015 included the first observations of major dyke propagation under ice. Three shallow ice depressions (ice cauldrons) with volumes ranging from 1 to 18 million m3 formed in Dyngjujökull glacier above the 48-km-long lateral path of the magma, at 4, 7 and 12 km from the northern glacier edge. Aircraft-based radar altimetry profiling was used to map the evolution of the cauldrons and construct a time series of the heat transfer rates. Out of the three scenarios explored: (1) onset or increase of hydrothermal activity, (2) convection within vertical fissures filled with water overlying intruded magma and (3) subglacial eruptions, the last option emerges as the only plausible mechanism to explain the rapid heat transfer observed in a location far from known geothermal areas. The thermal signals at two of the cauldrons are consistent with effusive subglacial eruptions. The formation of the northernmost cauldron was more rapid, indicating faster heat transfer rates. Radio-echo sounding data indicate that in contrast to the other two cauldrons, an intrusion of eruptive products occurred into the glacier, reaching 50–60 m above bedrock with the increased magma-ice contact explaining the more rapid heat transfer. We propose that the ~2-m widening associated with graben formation increased the groundwater storage capacity of the bedrock, creating space for the meltwater to be stored, explaining the absence of meltwater pulses draining from Dyngjujökull.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support of the EU Seventh Framework Marie Curie project NEMOH no. 289976, the Research Fund of the University of Iceland and Landsvirkjun power company. Fieldwork was supported with crisis response funding from the Icelandic government through the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, and through the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme grant no. 308377 (Project FUTUREVOLC). We thank The Icelandic Coast Guard who provided assistance in monitoring from their TF-SIF aircraft and ISAVIA (Icelandic Aviation Operation Services) and their crew on board the TF-FMS which was used for altimeter-DGPS profiling. The Iceland Glaciological Society assisted with fieldwork logistics in June 2015.

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Correspondence to Hannah I. Reynolds.

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Editorial responsibility: J. Taddeucci

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Reynolds, H.I., Gudmundsson, M.T., Högnadóttir, T. et al. Subglacial volcanic activity above a lateral dyke path during the 2014–2015 Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun rifting episode, Iceland. Bull Volcanol 79, 38 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-017-1122-z

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Keywords

  • Subglacial eruptions
  • Volcano-ice interaction
  • Rifting event
  • Ice cauldrons
  • Heat flux
  • Holuhraun