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Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse

Abstract

A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361–38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700–361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ∼3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ∼QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123–1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ∼5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ∼3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Natalia Kononkova for her help with olivine and pyroxene microprobe analyses at Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (Russia). Additionally, we want to thank participants of the NSF PIRE project, particularly John Eichelberger and Pavel Izbekov, for their help in microprobe and whole-rock analyses at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.

MG acknowledges support from International Fulbright Science and Technology, from Graduate School of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, and personally Prof. Claude Herzberg. PRK acknowledges support from the NSF Division of Polar Programs. MG and AN acknowledge support from NSF grant EAR-1015422. MG acknowledges support from the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences grants “12-III-A-08-166” and “15-I-1-025.” AO acknowledges support from the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, grant “15-I-2-069” and Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant “15-05-05502”.

We are especially grateful to Maxim Portnyagin, Angela Seligman, Ilya Bindeman, and three anonymous reviewers for the critical reviews and to Michelle Coombs for the editorial work.

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Gavrilenko, M., Ozerov, A., Kyle, P.R. et al. Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse. Bull Volcanol 78, 47 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1038-z

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Keywords

  • Magma mixing
  • Fractional crystallization
  • Magma plumbing system reorganization
  • Caldera
  • Gorely volcano
  • Kamchatka
  • Volcano morphology