Skip to main content

Major eruptive style changes induced by structural modifications of a shallow conduit system: the 2007–2012 Stromboli case

Abstract

Stromboli is known for its mild, persistent explosive activity from the vents located within the summit crater depression at the uppermost part of the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression. Effusive activity (lava flows) at this volcano normally occurs every 5–15 years, involving often the opening of eruptive fissures along the SdF, and more rarely overflows from the summit crater. Between the end of the 2007 effusive eruption and December 2012, the number of lava flows inside and outside the crater depression has increased significantly, reaching a total of 28, with an average of 4.8 episodes per year. An open question is why this activity has become so frequent during the last 6 years and was quite rare before. In this paper, we describe this exceptional activity and propose an interpretation based on the structural state of the volcano, changed after the 2002–2003 and even more after the 2007 flank effusive eruption. We use images from the Stromboli fixed cameras network, as well as ground photos, plume SO2 and CO2 fluxes released by the summit crater, and continuous fumarole temperature recording, to unravel the interplay between magma supply, structural and morphology changes, and lava flow output. Our results might help forecast the future behaviour and hazard at Stromboli and might be applicable to other open-conduit volcanoes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Acocella V, Neri M (2009) Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: overview and possible developments. Tectonophysics 471:67–77. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.10.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Acocella V, Neri M, Scarlato P (2006) Understanding shallow magma emplacement at volcanoes: orthogonal feeder dikes during the 2002–2003 Stromboli (Italy) eruption. Geophys Res Lett 33 (L17310). doi:10.1029/2006GL026862

  3. Aiuppa A, Federico C (2004) Anomalous magmatic degassing prior to the 5th April 2003 paroxysm on Stromboli. Geophys Res Lett 31 (L14607). doi:10.1029/2004GL020458

  4. Aiuppa A, Federico C, Giudice G, Giuffrida G, Guida R, Gurrieri S, Liuzzo M, Moretti R, Papale P (2009) The 2007 eruption of Stromboli volcano: insights from real-time measurement of the volcanic gas plume CO2/SO2 ratio. J Volcanol Geoth Res 182:221–230. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Aiuppa A, Bertagnini A, Métrich N, Moretti R, Di Muro A, Liuzzo M, Tamburello G (2010) A model of degassing for Stromboli volcano. Earth Planet Sci Lett 295:195–204. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.03.040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Allard P, Carbonnelle J, Métrich N, Loyer H, Zettwoog P (1994) Sulphur output and magma degassing budget of Stromboli volcano. Nature 368:326–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Anderson T (1905) On certain recent changes in the crater of Stromboli. Geogr J 25:123–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Andronico D, Pistolesi M (2010) The November 2009 paroxysmal explosions at Stromboli. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 196:120–125. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.06.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Andronico D, Taddeucci J, Cristaldi A, Miraglia L, Scarlato P, Gaeta M (2013) The 15 March 2007 paroxysm of Stromboli: video-image analysis, and textural and compositional features of the erupted deposit. Bull Volcanol 75:733. doi:10.1007/s00445-013-0733-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Barberi F, Innocenti F, Ferrara G, Keller J, Villari L (1974) Evolution of Eolian Arc volcanism (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Earth Planet Sci Lett 21:269–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Barberi F, Rosi M, Sodi A (1993) Volcanic hazard assessment at Stromboli based on review of historical data. Acta Vulcanol 3:173–187

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bertagnini A, Coltelli M, Landi P, Pompilio M, Rosi M (1999) Violent explosions yield new insights into dynamics of Stromboli volcano. EOS Am Geophys Union Trans 80:633–636

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bertolaso G, Bonaccorso A, Boschi E (2008) Scientific community and civil protection synergy during the Stromboli 2002–2003 eruption. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli Volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 182:387–397. doi:10.1029/182GM31

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bonaccorso A (1998) Evidence of a dyke-sheet intrusion at Stromboli volcano inferred through continuous tilt. Geophys Res Lett 25:4225–4228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bonaccorso A, Calvari S, Garfì G, Lodato L, Patané D (2003) Dynamics of the December 2002 flank failure and tsunami at Stromboli volcano inferred by volcanological and geophysical observations. Geophys Res Lett 30(18):1941–1944

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bonaccorso A, Gambino S, Guglielmino F, Mattia M, Puglisi G, Boschi E (2008) Stromboli 2007 eruption: deflation modeling to infer shallow-intermediate plumbing system. Geophys Res Lett 35 (L06311). doi:10.1029/2007GL032921

  17. Bonaccorso A, Calvari S, Linde A, Sacks S, Boschi E (2012) Dynamics of the shallow plumbing system investigated from borehole strainmeters and cameras during the 15 March 2007 Vulcanian paroxysm at Stromboli volcano. Earth Planet Sci Lett 357–358:249–256. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Burton MR, Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L, Pino NA, Marchetti E, Murè F (2008) Volcanic and seismic activity at Stromboli preceding the 2002–2003 eruption. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli Volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 182:93–104. doi:10.1029/182GM09

    Google Scholar 

  19. Burton MR, Caltabiano T, Murè F, Salerno GG, Randazzo D (2009) SO2 flux from Stromboli during the 2007 eruption: results from the FLAME network and traverse measurements. J Volcanol Geoth Res 18:214–220. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L, Harris AJL, Patrick MR, Dehn J, Burton MR, Andronico D (2005a) Chronology and complex volcanic processes during the 2002–2003 flank eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy) reconstructed from direct observations and surveys with a handheld thermal camera. J Geophys Res 110 (B02201). doi:10.1029/2004JB003129

  21. Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L, Harris AJL, Patrick MR, Dehn J, Burton MR, Andronico D (2005b) Correction to “chronology and complex volcanic processes during the 2002–2003 flank eruption at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) reconstructed from direct observations and surveys with a handheld thermal camera”. J Geophys Res 110 (B04201). doi:10.1029/2005JB003723

  22. Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L (2006) The 5 April 2003 vulcanian paroxysmal explosion at Stromboli volcano (Italy) from field observations and thermal data. J Volcanol Geoth Res 149:160–175. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.06.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Calvari S, Lodato L, Steffke A, Cristaldi A, Harris AJL, Spampinato L, Boschi E (2010) The 2007 Stromboli eruption: event chronology and effusion rates using thermal infrared data. J Geophys Res 115 (B04201). doi:10.1029/2009JB006478

  24. Calvari S, Branca S, Corsaro RA, De Beni E, Miraglia L, Norini G, Wijbrans J, Boschi E (2011a) Reconstruction of the eruptive activity on the NE sector of Stromboli volcano: timing of flank eruptions since 15 ka. Bull Volcanol 73:101–112. doi:10.1007/s00445-010-0412-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Calvari S, Salerno GG, Spampinato L, Gouhier M, La Spina A, Pecora E, Harris AJL, Labazuy P, Biale E, Boschi E (2011b) An unloading foam model to constrain Etna’s 11–13 January 2011 lava fountaining episode. J Geophys Res 116 (B11207). doi:10.1029/2011JB008407

  26. Calvari S, Spampinato L, Bonaccorso A, Oppenheimer C, Rivalta E, Boschi E (2011c) Lava effusion—a slow fuse for paroxysms at Stromboli volcano? Earth Planet Sci Lett 301:317–323. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.11.015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Calvari S, Büttner R, Cristaldi A, Dellino P, Giudicepietro F, Orazi M, Peluso R, Spampinato L, Zimanowski B, Boschi E (2012) The 7 September 2008 vulcanian explosion at Stromboli volcano: multi-parametric characterisation of the event and quantification of the ejecta. J Geophys Res 117 (B05201). doi:10.1029/2011JB009048

  28. Capaldi G, Guerra I, Lo Bascio A, Luongo G, Pece R, Rapolla A, Scarpa R, Del Pezzo E, Martini M, Ghiara MR, Lirer L, Munno R, La Volpe L (1978) Stromboli and its 1975 Eruption. Bull Volcanol 41:259–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Casagli N, Catani F, Del Ventisette C, Luzi G (2010) Monitoring, prediction, and early warning using ground-based radar interferometry. Landslides 7:291–301. doi:10.1007/s10346-010-0215-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Chiocci FL, Romagnoli C, Tommasi P, Bosman A (2008) The Stromboli 2002 tsunamigenic submarine slide: Characteristics and possible failure mechanisms. J Geophys Res 113 (B10102). doi:10.1029/2007JB005172

  31. Chouet B, Hamisevicz N, McGetchin TR (1974) Photoballistics of volcanic jet activity at Stromboli, Italy. J Geophys Res 79(32):4961–4976

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Chouet B, Saccorotti G, Martini M, Dawson P, De Luca G, Milana G, Scarpa R (1997) Source and path effects in the wave fields of tremor and explosions at Stromboli volcano Italy. J Geophys Res 102:12,915–12,950

    Google Scholar 

  33. Chouet B, Dawson P, Ohminato T, Martini M, Saccorotti G, Giudicepietro F, De Luca G, Milana G, Scarpa R (2003) Source mechanisms of explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, determined from moment-tensor inversions of very-long-period data. J Geophys Res 108(B1):2019. doi:10.1029/2002JB001919

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Chouet B, Dawson P, Martini M (2008) Shallow-conduit dynamics at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, imaged from waveform inversions. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 307:57–84. doi:10.1144/SP307.5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Coppola D, Piscopo D, Laiolo M, Cigolini C, Delle Donne D, Ripepe M (2012) Radiative heat power at Stromboli volcano during 2000–2011: twelve years of MODIS observations. J Volcanol Geoth Res 215–216:48–60. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. De Fino M, La Volpe L, Falsaperla S, Frazzetta G, Neri G, Francalanci L, Rosi M, Sbrana A (1988) The Stromboli eruption of December 6, 1985–April 25, 1986: volcanological, petrological and seismological data. Rend Soc Ital Mineral Petrol 43:1021–1038

    Google Scholar 

  37. De Gregorio S, Madonia P, Gurrieri S, Giudice G, Inguaggiato S (2007) Contemporary total dissolved gas pressure and soil temperature anomalies recorded at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Geophys Res Lett 34 (L08301). doi:10.1029/2007GL029578

  38. Del Moro S, Renzulli A, Landi P, La Felice S, Rosi M (2013) Unusual lapilli tuff ejecta erupted at Stromboli during the 15 March 2007 explosion shed light on the nature and thermal state of rocks forming the crater system of the volcano. J Volcanol Geoth Res 254:37–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Di Traglia F, Del Ventisette C, Rosi M, Mugnai F, Intrieri E, Moretti S, Casagli N (2013) Ground based InSAR reveals conduit pressurization pulses at Stromboli volcano. Terra Nova 25:192–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Di Traglia F, Intrieri E, Nolesini T, Bardi F, Del Ventisette C, Ferrigno F, Frangioni S, Frodella W, Gigli G, Lotti A, Stefanelli CT, Tanteri L, Leva D, Casagli N (2014) The ground-based InSAR monitoring system at Stromboli volcano: linking changes in displacement rate and intensity of persistent volcanic activity. Bull Volcanol 76:786. doi:10.1007/s00445-013-0786-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. D'Oriano C, Bertagnini A, Pompilio M (2011) Ash erupted during normal activity at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) raises questions on how the feeding system works. Bull Volcanol 73:471–477. doi:10.1007/s00445-010-0425-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Falsaperla S, Maiolino V, Spampinato S, Jaquet O, Neri M (2008) Sliding episodes during the 2002–2003 Stromboli lava effusion: insights from seismic, volcanic, and statistical data analysis. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9 (Q04022). doi:10.1029/2007GC001859

  43. Finizola A, Aubert M, Revil A, Schütze C, Sortino F (2009) Importance of structural history in the summit area of Stromboli during the 2002–2003 eruptive crisis inferred from temperature, soil CO2, self-potential, and electrical resistivity tomography. J Volcanol Geoth Res 183:213–227. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.04.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Francalanci L, Tommasini S, Conticelli S (2004) The volcanic activity of Stromboli in the 1906–1998 AD period: mineralogical, geochemical and isotope data relevant to the understanding of the plumbing system. J Volcanol Geoth Res 131:179–211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Francalanci L, Avanzinelli R, Nardini I, Tiepolo M, Davidson JP, Vannucci R (2012) (2012) Crystal recycling in the steady-state system of the active Stromboli volcano: a 2.5-ka story inferred from in situ Sr-isotope and trace element data. Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:109–131. doi:10.1007/s00410-011-0661-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Francalanci L, Lucchi F, Keller J, De Astis G, Tranne CA (2013) Eruptive, volcano-tectonic and magmatic history of the Stromboli volcano (north-eastern Aeolian archipelago). In: Lucchi F, Peccerillo A, Keller J, Tranne CA, Rossi PL (eds) The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes, vol 37, Geol Soc London Mem., pp 397–471. doi:10.1144/M37.13

    Google Scholar 

  47. Gurioli L, Colò L, Bollasina AJ, Harris AJL, Whittington A, Ripepe M (2014) Dynamics of Strombolian explosions: inferences from field and laboratory studies of erupted bombs from Stromboli volcano. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119. doi:10.1002/2013JB010355

  48. Harris AJL, Ripepe M, Calvari S, Lodato L, Spampinato L (2008) The 5 April 2003 explosion of Stromboli: timing of eruption dynamics using thermal data. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli Volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monograph Ser 182:305–316. doi:10.1029/182GM25

    Google Scholar 

  49. Hornig-Kjarsgaard I, Keller J, Koberski U, Stadlbauer E, Francalanci L, Lenhart R (1993) Geology, stratigraphy and volcanological evolution of the island of Stromboli, Aeolian arc, Italy. Acta Vulcanol 3:21–68

    Google Scholar 

  50. INGV Reports, www.ct.ingv.it/rapporti/vulcanologia.html

  51. Keller J, Hornig-Kjarsgaard I, Koberski U, Stadlbauer E, Lenhart R (1993) Geological map of the island of Stromboli. Acta Vulcanol 3

  52. La Felice S, Landi P (2011) The 2009 paroxysmal explosions at Stromboli (Italy): magma mixing and eruption dynamics. Bull Volcanol 73:1147–1154. doi:10.1007/s00445-011-0502-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Landi P, Métrich N, Bertagnini A, Rosi M (2008) Recycling and “re-hydration” of degassed magma inducing transient dissolution/crystallization events at Stromboli (Italy). J Volcanol Geoth Res 174:325–336. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.02.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Lautze NC, Houghton BF (2005) Physical mingling of magma and complex eruption dynamics in the shallow conduit at Stromboli volcano, Italy. Geology 33:425–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Lesne P, Kohn SC, Blundy J, Witham F, Botcharnikov RE, Behrens H (2011) Experimental simulation of closed-system degassing in the system basalt-H2O-CO2-S-Cl. J Petrol 52:1737–1762. doi:10.1093/petrology/egr027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Madonia P, Fiordilino E (2013) Time variability of low-temperature fumaroles at Stromboli island (Italy) and its application to volcano monitoring. Bull Volcanol 75:776. doi:10.1007/s00445-013-0776-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Marsella M, Baldi P, Coltelli M, Fabris M (2012) The morphological evolution of the Sciara del Fuoco since 1868: reconstructing the effusive activity at Stromboli volcano. Bull Volcanol 74:231–248. doi:10.1007/s00445-011-0516-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Martini M, Giudicepietro F, D’Auria L, Esposito AM, Caputo T, Curciotti R, De Cesare W, Orazi M, Scarpato G, Caputo A, Peluso R, Ricciolino P, Linde AT, Sacks S (2007) Seismological monitoring of the February 2007 effusive eruption of the Stromboli volcano. Ann Geophys 50:775–788

    Google Scholar 

  59. Mattia M, Rossi M, Guglielmino F, Aloisi M, Bock Y (2004) The shallow plumbing system of Stromboli Island as imaged from 1 Hz instantaneous GPS positions. Geophys Res Lett 31, L24610. doi:10.1029/2004GL021281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Métrich N, Bertagnini A, Landi P, Rosi M (2001) Crystallisation driven by decompression and water loss at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands). J Petrol 42:1471–1490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Métrich N, Bertagnini A, Landi P, Rosi M, Belhadj O (2005) Triggering mechanism at the origin of paroxysms at Stromboli (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy): The 5 April 2003 eruption. Geophys Res Lett 32(L10305). doi:10.1029/2004GL022257

  62. Neri M, Lanzafame G (2009) Structural features of the 2007 Stromboli eruption. J Volcanol Geoth Res 182:137–144. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.07.021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Neri M, Lanzafame G, Acocella V (2008) Dike emplacement and related hazard in volcanoes with sector collapse: the 2007 Stromboli eruption. J Geol Soc Lond 165:883–886. doi:10.1144/0016-76492008-002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Patrick MR, Harris AJL, Ripepe M, Dehn J, Rothery DA, Calvari S (2007) Strombolian explosive styles and source conditions: insights from thermal (FLIR) video. Bull Volcanol 69:769–784. doi:10.1007/s00445-006-0107-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Pioli L, Rosi M, Calvari S, Spampinato L, Renzulli A, Di Roberto A (2008) The eruptive activity of 28 and 29 December 2002. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli Volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 182:105–116. doi:10.1029/182GM10

    Google Scholar 

  66. Pistolesi M, Delle Donne D, Pioli L, Rosi M, Ripepe M (2011) The 15 March 2007 explosive crisis at Stromboli volcano, Italy: assessing physical parameters through a multidisciplinary approach. J Geophys Res 116 (B12206). doi:10.1029/2011JB008527

  67. Rittmann A (1931) Der ausbruch des Stromboli am 11 September 1930. Z Vulkanol 14:47–77

    Google Scholar 

  68. Rosi M, Pistolesi M, Bertagnini A, Landi P, Pompilio M, Di Roberto A (2013) Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands (Italy): present eruptive activity and hazards. In: Lucchi F, Peccerillo A, Keller J, Tranne CA, Rossi PL (eds) The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes. Geol Soc Lond Mem 37:473–490. doi:10.1144/M37.14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Salerno GG, Burton MR, Oppenheimer C, Caltabiano T, Randazzo D, Bruno N (2009a) Three-years of SO2 flux measurements of Mt. Etna using an automated UV scanner array: comparison with conventional traverses and uncertainties in flux retrieval. J Volcanol Geoth Res 183:76–83. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.02.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Salerno GG, Burton MR, Oppenheimer C, Caltabiano T, Tsanev V, Bruno N (2009b) Novel retrieval of volcanic SO2 abundance from ultraviolet spectra. J Volcanol Geoth Res 181:141–153. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Smithsonian Institution (1993) Stromboli. Bulletin Global Volcanism Network, Smithsonian Institution, 03/1993 (BGVN 18:04)

  72. Smithsonian Institution (1997) Stromboli. Bulletin Global Volcanism Network, Smithsonian Institution, 03/1997 (BGVN 22:03)

  73. Smithsonian Institution (2001) Stromboli. Bulletin Global Volcanism Network, Smithsonian Institution, 07/2001 (BGVN 26:07)

  74. Spampinato L, Calvari S, Oppenheimer C, Lodato L (2008) Shallow magma transport for the 2002–03 Mt. Etna eruption inferred from thermal infrared surveys. J Volcanol Geoth Res 177:301–312. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.05.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Tibaldi A (2001) Multiple sector collapses at Stromboli volcano, Italy: how they work. Bull Volcanol 63:112–125. doi:10.1007/s004450100129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Tommasi P, Baldi P, Chiocci FL, Coltelli M, Marsella M, Pompilio M, Romagnoli C (2005) The landslide sequence induced by the 2002 eruption at Stromboli Volcano. In: Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Wang FW, Wang G (eds) Landslide-risk analysis and sustainable disaster management. Springer-Verlag 32:251–258

  77. Washington HS (1917) Persistence of vents at Stromboli and its bearing on volcanic mechanism. Geol Soc Am Bull 28:249–278

    Google Scholar 

  78. Wijbrans J, Schneider B, Kuiper K, Calvari S, Branca S, De Beni E, Norini G, Corsaro RA, Miraglia L (2011) 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Holocene basalts; examples from Stromboli, Italy. Quat Geochronol 6:223–232. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2010.10.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Zanon V, Neri M, Pecora E (2009) Interpretation of data from the monitoring thermal camera: the case of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Geol Mag 146:591–601. doi:10.1017/S0016756809005937

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This paper was partially supported by the Project INGV-DPC Paroxysm V2/03, 2007–2009 funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and the Italian Civil Protection. We would like to thank Maurizio Ripepe for providing videos of the eruptive activity and Mauro Rosi for making available an early preprint of his paper; Mario Pruiti and Mario Zaia for their information and field assistance during summit surveys on the volcano; the Italian Civil Protection for making available their photos from helicopter; Filippo Muré for his technical assistance with the FLAME network; and Emilio Pecora, Emilio Biale, Michele Prestifilippo and Francesco Ciancitto for the maintenance of the INGV webcamera monitoring network. We warmly thank the Associate Editor Matthew R. Patrick, as well as Anthony Finizola, Nicole Lautze and an anonymous reviewer for their appreciation of our work and for the suggestions that have significantly contributed to improve the clarity of a previous version of the paper.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Calvari.

Additional information

Editorial responsibility: M.R. Patrick

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Calvari, S., Bonaccorso, A., Madonia, P. et al. Major eruptive style changes induced by structural modifications of a shallow conduit system: the 2007–2012 Stromboli case. Bull Volcanol 76, 841 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-014-0841-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Stromboli
  • Effusive activity
  • Structural and morphology changes