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Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 73, Issue 10, pp 1567–1582 | Cite as

Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

  • Heather M. N. WrightEmail author
  • Chiara Lesti
  • Raymond A. F. Cas
  • Massimiliano Porreca
  • José G. Viramonte
  • Chris B. Folkes
  • Guido Giordano
Research Article

Abstract

Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

Keywords

Pyroclastic flow Columnar joint Devitrification Vapor phase Welding Ignimbrite 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge Shan de Silva for thoughtful discussions that helped to clarify the manuscript. This work was funded by ARC grant DP0663560 to Cas and PICT 07-38131 ANPCyT to Viramonte. Reviews by J.L. LePennec and G. Keating and earlier reviews by K. Wohletz and C. Wilson provided helpful suggestions for revision.

Supplementary material

445_2011_524_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.8 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 3915 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather M. N. Wright
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chiara Lesti
    • 2
  • Raymond A. F. Cas
    • 1
  • Massimiliano Porreca
    • 2
  • José G. Viramonte
    • 3
  • Chris B. Folkes
    • 1
  • Guido Giordano
    • 2
  1. 1.School of GeosciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze GeologicheUniversità degli Studi di Roma TreRomeItaly
  3. 3.Instituto GEONORTE and CONICETUniversidad Nacional de SaltaSaltaArgentina

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