Bulletin of Volcanology

, 71:219 | Cite as

Dike propagation within active central volcanic edifices: constraints from Somma-Vesuvius, Etna and analogue models

Short Scientific Communication

Abstract

Dikes within stratovolcanoes are commonly expected to have radial patterns. However, other patterns may also be found, due to regional stresses, magmatic reservoirs and topographic variations. Here, we investigate dike patterns within volcanic edifices by studying dike and fissure complexes at Somma-Vesuvius and Etna (Italy) using analogue models. At the surface, the dikes and fissures show a radial configuration. At depths of tens to several hundreds of metres, in areas exposed by erosion, tangential and oblique dikes are also present. Analogue models indicate that dikes approaching the flanks of cones, regardless of their initial orientation, reorient to become radial (parallel to the maximum gravitational stress). This re-orientation is a significant process in shallow magma migration and may also control the emplacement of dike-fed fissures reaching the lower slopes of the volcano.

Keywords

Dike propagation Central volcanic edifices Stress 

References

  1. Acocella V, Tibaldi A (2005) Dike propagation driven by volcano collapse: a general model tested at Stromboli, Italy. Geophys Res Lett 32:L08308 doi:10.1029/2004GL022248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acocella V, Porreca M, Neri M, Mattei M, Funiciello R (2006) Fissure eruptions at Mount Vesuvius (Italy): insights on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes. Geology 34:673–676 doi:10.1130/G22552.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Behncke B, Neri M (2003) Cycles and trends in the recent eruptive behaviour of Mount Etna (Italy). Can J Earth Sci 40:1405–1411 doi:10.1139/E03-052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bousquet JC, Lanzafame G (2001) Nouvelle interprétation des fractures des éruptions latérales de l’Etna: conséquences pour son cadre tectonique. Bull Soc Geol Fr 172:455–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calvari S, Tanner LH, Groppelli G (1998) Debris-avalanche deposits of the Milo lahar sequence and the opening of the Valle del Bove on Etna volcano (Italy). J Volcanol Geoth Res 87:193–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chadwick WW, Howard KA (1991) The pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive fissures on the volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos. Bull Volcanol 53:259–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cioni R, Santacroce R, Sbrana A (1999) Pyroclastic deposits as a guide for reconstructing the multi-stage evolution of the Somma-Vesuvius caldera. Bull Volcanol 61:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delaney PT, Pollard DD (1981) Deformation of host rock and flow of magma during growth of minette dikes and breccia-bearing intrusions near Ship Rock, New Mexico. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1202Google Scholar
  9. Dieterich JH (1988) Growth and persistence of Hawaiian volcanic rift zones. J Geophys Res 93:4258–4270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrari L, Garduño VH, Neri M (1991) I dicchi della Valle del Bove, Etna: un metodo per stimare le dilatazioni di un apparato vulcanico. Mem Soc Geol It 47:495–508Google Scholar
  11. Fiske RS, Jackson ED (1972) Orientation and growth of Hawaiian volcanic rifts. Proc R Soc Lond 329:299–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gudmundsson A (2006) How local stresses control magma-chamber ruptures, dyke injections, and eruptions in composite volcanoes. Earth Sci Rev 79:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McGuire WJ, Pullen AD (1989) Location and orientation of eruptive fissures and feeder-dykes at Mount Etna: influence of gravitational and regional stress regimes. J Volcanol Geoth Res 38:325–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ode H (1957) Mechanical analysis of the dike pattern of the Spanish peaks area, Colorado. Geol Soc Am Bull 68:567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Poland MP, Moats WP, Fink JH (2008) A model for radial dike emplacement in composite cones based on observations from Summer Coon volcano, Colorado, USA. Bull Volcanol. doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0175-9
  16. Porreca M, Acocella V, Massimi E, Mattei M, Funiciello R, De Benedetti AA (2006) Geometric and kinematic features of the dike complex at Mt. Somma, Vesuvio (Italy). Earth Planet Sci Lett 245:389–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Santacroce R, Sbrana A (eds) (2003) Geological Map of Vesuvius 1: 15000 scale. SELCA, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  18. Takada A (1994) Development of a subvolcanic structure by the interaction of liquid-filled cracks. J Volcanol Geoth Res 61:207–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Takada A (1997) Cyclic flank-vent and central-vent eruption patterns. Bull Volcanol 58:539–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walter TR, Troll VR (2003) Experiments on rift zone evolution in unstable volcanic edifices. J Volcanol Geoth Res 127:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dip. Scienze Geologiche Roma TreRomaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaCataniaItaly
  3. 3.CIRISIVU, c/o Dip. GeomineralogicoBariItaly

Personalised recommendations