Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 65, Issue 7, pp 477–485 | Cite as

Seismicity and crustal deformation preceding the January 1996 eruptions at Karymsky Volcanic Center, Kamchatka

  • Vyacheslav M. ZobinEmail author
  • Valeria I. Levina
  • Mefodi A. Maguskin
Research Article


Two explosive eruptions occurred on 2 January 1996 at Karymsky Volcanic Center (KVC) in Kamchatka, Russia: the first, dacitic, from the central vent of Karymsky volcano, and the second, several hours later, from Karymskoye lake in the caldera of Akademia Nauk volcano. The main significance of the 1996 volcanic events in KVC was the phreatomagmatic eruption in Karymskoye lake, which was the first eruption in this lake in historical time, and was a basaltic eruption at the acidic volcanic center. The volcanic events were associated with the 1 January Ms 6.7 (Mw 7.1) earthquake that occurred at a distance of about 9–17 km southeast from the volcanoes just before the eruptions. We study the long-term (1972–1995) and short-term (1–2 January 1996) characteristics of crustal deformations and seismicity before the double eruptive event in KVC. The 1972–1995 crustal deformation was homogeneous and characterized by a gradual extension with a steady velocity. The seismic activity in 1972–1995 developed at the depth interval from 0 to 20 km below the Akademia Nauk volcano and spread to the southeast along a regional fault. The seismic activity in January 1996 began with a short sequence of very shallow microearthquakes (M ~0) beneath Karymsky volcano. Then seismic events sharply increased in magnitude (up to mb 4.9) and moved along the regional fault to the southeast, culminating in the Ms 6.7 earthquake. Its aftershocks were located to the southeast and northwest from the main shock, filling the space between the two active volcanoes and the ancient basaltic volcano of Zhupanovsky Vostryaki. The eruption in Karymskoye lake began during the aftershock sequence. We consider that the Ms 6.7 earthquake opened the passageway for basic magma located below Zhupanovsky Vostryaki volcano that fed the eruption in Karymskoye lake.


Kamchatka Karymsky Volcanic Center Seismicity Deformations 1996 eruptions 



L. Bazanova helped us with the geological information about Mt. Zhupanovsky Vostryaki. M. Bursik, M. Hagerty, O. Spieler and an anonymous reviewer helped improve the manuscript.


  1. Abe K (1992) Seismicity of the caldera-making eruption of Mount Katmai, Alaska in 1912. Bull Seismol Soc Am 82:175–191Google Scholar
  2. Belousov A, Belousova M, Murav'ev YaD (1997) Holocene eruptions in the Akademia Nauk caldera and the age of the Karymsky stratovolcano, Kamchatka (English translation). Trans Russ Ac Sci 335:653–657Google Scholar
  3. Brandsdottir B, Einarsson P (1979) Seismic activity associated with the September 1977 deflation of the Krafla central volcano in north-eastern Iceland. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 6:197–212Google Scholar
  4. Einarsson P, Brandsdottir B (1980) Seismological evidence for lateral magma intrusion during the July 1978 deflation of the Krafla volcano in NE Iceland. J Geophys 47:160–165Google Scholar
  5. Fedotov SA (1998) Study and mechanism of the simultaneous 1996 Karymsky volcano and Akademia Nauk caldera eruptions in Kamchatka. Volcanol Seismol 19:525–566Google Scholar
  6. Fedotov SA, Gorelchik VI, Zobin VM, Stepanov VV, Chubarova OS, Shirokov VA (1984) Seismological data on mechanism and development of the eruption. In: Fedotov SA (ed) Large Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka, 1975–1976 (in Russian). Nauka, Moscow, pp 389–447Google Scholar
  7. Firstov PP, Lemzikov VK, Rulenko OP (1977) Seismic regime of Karymsky volcano (1970–1973). In: Fedotov SA (ed) Volcanism and geodynamics (in Russian). Nauka, Moscow, pp 161–178Google Scholar
  8. Gordeev EI, Droznin DV, Kasahara M, Levina VI, Leonov VL, Miyamachi H, Okayama M, Saltykov VA, Sinitsyn VI, Chebrov VN (1998) Seismic events associated with the 1996 volcanic eruptions in the Karymsky volcanic center. Volcanol Seismol 19:713–735Google Scholar
  9. Hildreth W (1987) New perspectives on the eruption of 1912 in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska. Bull Volcanol 49:680–693Google Scholar
  10. Khrenov AP, Dubik YuM, Ivanov BV, Ovsyannikov AA, Pilipenko VP,Taran YuA, Firstov PP, Chirkov AM (1982) Eruptive activity of Karymsky volcano in 1970-1980 (in Russian). Volcanol Seismol 4:29-48Google Scholar
  11. Klein F, Koyanagi RY, Nakata JS, Tanigawa WR (1987) The seismicity of Kilauea's magma system. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:1019–1185Google Scholar
  12. Maguskin MA, Enman VB, Seleznev BV, Shkred VI (1982) Surface displacements at Karymsky volcano in 1970–1981 according to geodetic and photogrammetric data (in Russian). Volcanol Seismol 4:49–63Google Scholar
  13. Maguskin MA, Fedotov SA, Levin VE, Bakhtiarov VF (1998) Ground surface deformations caused by seismic and volcanic activity in the Karymsky Volcanic Center during January 1996. Volcanol Seismol 19:637–654Google Scholar
  14. Masurenkov YuP (ed) (1980) Volcanic center: structure, dynamics, and rock composition (Karymsky Volcanic Center) (in Russian). Nauka, Moscow, 235 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Masurenkov YuP (1991) Tectonic position and general history and evolution of eastern Kamchatka volcanoes. In: Fedotov SA, Masurenkov YuP (eds) Active volcanoes of Kamchatka, vol 2. Nauka, Moscow, pp 8–15Google Scholar
  16. Scholz CH (1990) The mechanics of earthquakes and faulting. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 439 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Tokarev PI, Firstov PP (1967) Seismic study of Karymsky volcano (in Russian). Bull Volcanol Stat 43:9–20Google Scholar
  18. Zobin VM (2001) Seismic hazard of volcanic activity. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 112:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zobin VM, Levina VI (1998) Rupture history of the 1996 January 1 Ms 6.6 volcanic earthquake preceding the simultaneous eruption of Karymsky and Akademia Nauk volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. J Geophys Res 103:18315–18324Google Scholar
  20. Zobin VM, Firstov PP, Ivanova EI (1983) Earthquake swarm in the region of Karymsky volcano in Jan.–Feb. 1978 (In Russian). Volcanol Seismol 5:64–73Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vyacheslav M. Zobin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valeria I. Levina
    • 2
  • Mefodi A. Maguskin
    • 3
  1. 1.Observatorio VulcanológicoUniversidad de ColimaColima Mexico
  2. 2.Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Department, Geophysical ServiceRussian Academy of SciencesPetropavlovskRussia
  3. 3.Institute of VolcanologyRussian Academy of SciencesPetropavlovskRussia

Personalised recommendations