High-severity wildfires, which can homogenize floral communities, are becoming more common relative to historic mixed-severity fire regimes in the Northern Rockies of the U.S. High-severity wildfire could negatively affect bumble bees, which are typically diet generalists, if floral species of inadequate pollen quality dominate the landscape post-burn. High-severity wildfires often require more time to return to pre-burn vegetation composition, and thus, effects of high-severity burns may persist past initial impacts. We investigated how wildfire severity (mixed- vs. high-severity) and time-since-burn affected available floral pollen quality, corbicular pollen quality, and bumble bee nutrition using percent nitrogen as a proxy for pollen quality and bumble bee nutrition. We found that community-weighted mean floral pollen nitrogen, corbicular pollen nitrogen, and bumble bee nitrogen were greater on average by 0.82%N, 0.60%N, and 1.16%N, respectively, in mixed-severity burns. This pattern of enhanced floral pollen nitrogen in mixed-severity burns was likely driven by the floral community, as community-weighted mean floral pollen percent nitrogen explained 87.4% of deviance in floral community composition. Only bee percent nitrogen varied with time-since-burn, increasing by 0.33%N per year. If these patterns persist across systems, our findings suggest that although wildfire is an essential ecosystem process, there are negative early successional impacts of high-severity wildfires on bumble bees and potentially on other pollen-dependent organisms via reductions in available pollen quality and nutrition. This work examines a previously unexplored pathway for how disturbances can influence native bee success via altering the nutritional landscape of pollen.
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Funding for this project was provided by The National Science Foundation (DEB 1256819) and The Graduate School at Montana State University. Field data collection assistance by Dylan Cole, Laura Heil, and Kevin Hogensen. Lab analysis assistance by Jane Klaussen. Our thanks to the reviewers whose suggestions significantly improved this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Communicated by Riccardo Bommarco.
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Simanonok, M.P., Burkle, L.A. High-severity wildfire limits available floral pollen quality and bumble bee nutrition compared to mixed-severity burns. Oecologia 192, 489–499 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04577-9
- Floral resources
- Bombus spp.
- Pollination services