pp 1–13 | Cite as

Anthropogenic fragmentation of landscapes: mechanisms for eroding the specificity of plant–herbivore interactions

  • Robert Bagchi
  • Leone M. Brown
  • Chris S. Elphick
  • David L. Wagner
  • Michael S. Singer
Special Topic: From Plants to Herbivores


Reduced ecological specialization is an emerging, general pattern of ecological networks in fragmented landscapes. In plant–herbivore interactions, reductions in dietary specialization of herbivore communities are consistently associated with fragmented landscapes, but the causes remain poorly understood. We propose several hypothetical bottom–up and top–down mechanisms that may reduce the specificity of plant–herbivore interactions. These include empirically plausible applications and extensions of theory based on reduced habitat patch size and isolation (considered jointly), and habitat edge effects. Bottom–up effects in small, isolated habitat patches may limit availability of suitable hostplants, a constraint that increases with dietary specialization. Poor hostplant quality due to inbreeding in such fragments may especially disadvantage dietary specialist herbivores even when their hostplants are present. Size and isolation of habitat patches may change patterns of predation of herbivores, but whether such putative changes are associated with herbivore dietary specialization should depend on the mobility, size, and diet breadth of predators. Bottom–up edge effects may favor dietary generalist herbivores, yet top–down edge effects may favor dietary specialists owing to reduced predation. An increasingly supported edge effect is trophic ricochets generated by large grazers/browsers, which remove key hostplant species of specialist herbivores. We present empirical evidence that greater deer browsing in small forest fragments disproportionately reduces specialist abundances in lepidopteran assemblages in northeastern USA. Despite indirect evidence for these mechanisms, they have received scant direct testing with experimental approaches at a landscape scale. Identifying their relative contributions to reduced specificity of plant–herbivore interactions in fragmented landscapes is an important research goal.


Biotic homogenization Diet breadth Edge effects Trophic interactions Trophic ricochet 



We thank Miranda Davis, Howard Kilpatrick, Sabrina Strom, Crystal Wright, Quinn Brencher, and Daniel Grogan for their contributions to the ideas and collection of data presented in this paper. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation (Grant Number DEB-1557086). We are grateful to Colin Orians for inviting this paper. The paper was substantially improved by suggestions from Dr. Orians and three anonymous reviewers. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author contribution statement

RB, MSS, DLW, and CSE conceived the idea and obtained funding; RB and MSS drafted the initial manuscript, and LMB, CSE, and DLW contributed sections and revisions; and RB performed statistical analysis and RB and MSS developed the figures.

Supplementary material

442_2018_4115_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)


  1. Ali JG, Agrawal AA (2012) Specialist versus generalist insect herbivores and plant defense. Trends Plant Sci 17:293–302.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2012.02.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JM, Leininger TJ, Hurd JD, Civco DL, Gelfand AE, Silander JA (2013) Socioeconomics drive woody invasive plant richness in New England, USA through forest fragmentation. Landsc Ecol. 28:1671–1686.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-013-9916-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alverson WS, Waller DM, Solheim SL (1988) Forests too deer: edge effects in northern Wisconsin. Conserv Biol 2:348–358.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1988.tb00199.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anton C, Zeisset I, Musche M, Durka W, Boomsma JJ, Settele J (2007) Population structure of a large blue butterfly and its specialist parasitoid in a fragmented landscape. Mol Ecol 16:3828–3838.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03441.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Askins RA (1993) Population trends in grassland, shrubland, and forest birds in eastern North America. In: Power DM (ed) Current ornithology, vol 11. Plenum Press, New York, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  6. Bascompte J, Solé RV (1998) Effects of habitat destruction in a prey-predator metapopulation model. J Theor Biol 195:383–393.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.1998.0803 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayard TS, Elphick CS (2010) How area sensitivity in birds is studied. Conserv Biol 24:938–947.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01480.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernays E, Chapman R (1994) Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowers MD, Schmitt J (2013) Overcrowding leads to lethal oviposition mistakes in the Baltimore Checkerspot, Euphydryas phaeton, Drury (Nymphalidae). J Lepid Soc 67:227–229.  https://doi.org/10.18473/lepi.v67i3.a10 Google Scholar
  10. Brazaitis G et al (2014) Landscape effect for the Cervidaes Cervidae in human-dominated fragmented forests. Eur J For Res 133:857–869.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-014-0802-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bregman TP, Sekercioglu CH, Tobias JA (2014) Global patterns and predictors of bird species responses to forest fragmentation: implications for ecosystem function and conservation. Biol Conserv 169:372–383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bressette JW, Beck H, Beauchamp VB (2012) Beyond the browse line: complex cascade effects mediated by white-tailed deer. Oikos 121:1749–1760.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20305.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown LM, Crone EE (2016) Minimum area requirements for an at-risk butterfly based on movement and demography. Conserv Biol 30:103–112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12588 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown JH, Kodric-Brown A (1977) Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58:445–449.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1935620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown LM, Breed GA, Severns PM, Crone EE (2017) Losing a battle but winning the war: moving past preference–performance to understand native herbivore–novel host plant interactions. Oecologia 183:441–453.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-016-3787-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burghardt KT, Tallamy DW (2013) Plant origin asymmetrically impacts feeding guilds and life stages driving community structure of herbivorous arthropods. Divers Distrib 19:1553–1565.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burghardt KT, Tallamy DW, Philips C, Shropshire KJ (2010) Non-native plants reduce abundance, richness, and host specialization in lepidopteran communities. Ecosphere 1:1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1890/ES10-00032.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burkle LA, Marlin JC, Knight TM (2013) Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence, and function. Science 339:1611–1615.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1232728 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cagnolo L, Valladares G, Salvo A, Cabido M, Zak M (2009) Habitat fragmentation and species loss across three interacting trophic levels: effects of life-history and food-web traits. Conserv Biol 23:1167–1175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01214.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell SA, Thaler JS, Kessler A (2013) Plant chemistry underlies herbivore-mediated inbreeding depression in nature. Ecol Lett 16:252–260.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12036 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carr DE, Eubanks MD (2002) Inbreeding alters resistance to insect herbivory and host plant quality in Mimulus guttatus (Scrophulariaceae). Evolution 56:22–30.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00846.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chips MJ et al (2015) The indirect impact of long-term overbrowsing on insects in the Allegheny National Forest region of Pennsylvania. Northeast Nat 22:782–797.  https://doi.org/10.1656/045.022.0412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cirtwill AR, Stouffer DB (2016) Knowledge of predator–prey interactions improves predictions of immigration and extinction in island biogeography. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 25:900–911.  https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clavel J, Julliard R, Devictor V (2011) Worldwide decline of specialist species: toward a global functional homogenization? Front Ecol Environ 9:222–228.  https://doi.org/10.1890/080216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Collins C et al (2017) Fragmentation affects plant community composition over time. Ecography 40:119–130.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Connor EF, McCoy ED (1979) The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship. Am Nat 113:791–833.  https://doi.org/10.1086/283438 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cornell HV, Hawkins BA (2003) Herbivore responses to plant secondary compounds: a test of phytochemical coevolution theory. Am Nat 161:507–522.  https://doi.org/10.1086/368346 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crone EE, Schultz CB (2003) Movement behavior and minimum patch size for butterfly population persistence. In: Boggs CL, Watt WB, Ehrlich PR (eds) Butterflies: ecology and evolution taking flight. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 561–576Google Scholar
  29. Curtis RJ, Brereton TM, Dennis RL, Carbone C, Isaac NJ (2015) Butterfly abundance is determined by food availability and is mediated by species traits. J Appl Ecol 52:1676–1684.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12523 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Daskin JH, Pringle RM (2016) Does primary productivity modulate the indirect effects of large herbivores? A global meta-analysis. J Anim Ecol 85:857–868.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12522 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Carvalho Guimarães CD, Viana JPR, Cornelissen T (2014) A meta-analysis of the effects of fragmentation on herbivorous insects. Environ Entomol 43:537–545.  https://doi.org/10.1603/EN13190 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Delphia CM, De Moraes CM, Stephenson AG, Mescher MC (2009) Inbreeding in horsenettle influences herbivore resistance. Ecol Entomol 34:513–519.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01097.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Devictor V et al (2010) Defining and measuring ecological specialization. J Appl Ecol 47:15–25.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01744.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Didham RK, Kapos V, Ewers RM (2012) Rethinking the conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation research. Oikos 121:161–170.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20273.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dyer LA (1995) Tasty generalists and nasty specialists? Antipredator mechanisms in tropical lepidopteran larvae. Ecology 76:1483–1496.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1938150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ewers RM, Banks-Leite C (2013) Fragmentation impairs the microclimate buffering effect of tropical forests. PLoS ONE 8:e58093.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058093 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ewers R, Didham R (2006) Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:117–142.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1464793105006949 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Faeth SH, Warren PS, Shochat E, Marussich WA (2005) Trophic dynamics in urban communities. Bioscience 55:399–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:487–515.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fahrig L (2017) Ecological responses to habitat fragmentation per se. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110316-022612 Google Scholar
  41. Forister ML, Dyer LA, Singer MS, Stireman JO, Lill JT (2012) Revisiting the evolution of ecological specialization, with emphasis on insect–plant interactions. Ecology 93:981–991.  https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0650.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fox LR, Morrow PA (1981) Specialization: species property or local phenomenon. Science 211:887–893.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.211.4485.887 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Franzén M, Schweiger O, Betzholtz P-E (2012) Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits. PLoS ONE 7:e37359.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037359 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frost CM, Didham RK, Rand TA, Peralta G, Tylianakis JM (2015) Community-level net spillover of natural enemies from managed to natural forest. Ecology 96:193–202.  https://doi.org/10.1890/14-0696.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gentry GL, Dyer LA (2002) On the conditional nature of neotropical caterpillar defenses against their natural enemies. Ecology 83:3108–3119.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[3108:OTCNON]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gravel D, Massol F, Canard E, Mouillot D, Mouquet N (2011) Trophic theory of island biogeography. Ecol Lett 14:1010–1016.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01667.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gripenberg S, Mayhew PJ, Parnell M, Roslin T (2010) A meta-analysis of preference–performance relationships in phytophagous insects. Ecol Lett 13:383–393.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01433.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guerin GR et al (2014) Global change community ecology beyond species-sorting: a quantitative framework based on mediterranean-biome examples. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:1062–1072.  https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Habeck CW, Schultz AK (2015) Community-level impacts of white-tailed deer on understorey plants in North American forests: a meta-analysis. AoB Plants 7:plv119.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv119 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haddad NM, Baum KA (1999) An experimental test of corridor effects on butterfly densities. Ecol Appl 9:623–633.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[0623:AETOCE]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haddad NM et al (2015) Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Sci Adv 1:e1500052.  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500052 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hagen M et al (2012) Biodiversity, species interactions and ecological networks in a fragmented world. Adv Ecol Res 46:89–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-396992-7.00002-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hambäck PA, Englund G (2005) Patch area, population density and the scaling of migration rates: the resource concentration hypothesis revisited. Ecol Lett 8:1057–1065.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00811.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hanski I (1999) Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  55. Harper KA et al (2005) Edge influence on forest structure and composition in fragmented landscapes. Conserv Biol 19:768–782.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00045.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hayes CN, Winsor JA, Stephenson AG (2004) Inbreeding influences herbivory in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae). Oecologia 140:601–608.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-004-1623-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holt RD (1996) Food webs in space: an island biogeographic perspective. In: Polis GA, Winemiller KO (eds) Food webs, integration of patterns and dynamics. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 313–323Google Scholar
  58. Holt RD (2010) Toward a trophic island biogeography. In: Losos JB, Ricklefs RE (eds) The theory of island biogeography revisited. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 143–185Google Scholar
  59. Holt RD, Lawton JH, Polis GA, Martinez ND (1999) Trophic rank and the species-area relationship. Ecology 80:1495–1504.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1495:TRATSA]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Honnay O, Jacquemyn H, Bossuyt B, Hermy M (2005) Forest fragmentation effects on patch occupancy and population viability of herbaceous plant species. New Phytol 166:723–736.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01352.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Horsley SB, Stout SL, DeCalesta DS (2003) White-tailed deer impact on the vegetation dynamics of a northern hardwood forest. Ecol Appl 13:98–118.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0098:WTDIOT]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huffaker C (1958) Experimental studies on predation: dispersion factors and predator-prey oscillations. Hilgardia 27:343–383.  https://doi.org/10.3733/hilg.v27n14p343 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hull-Sanders HM, Eubanks MD (2005) Plant defense theory provides insight into interactions involving inbred plants and insect herbivores. Ecology 86:897–904.  https://doi.org/10.1890/04-0935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hunter MD (2002) Landscape structure, habitat fragmentation, and the ecology of insects. Agric For Entomol 4:159–166.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-9563.2002.00152.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hunter MD (2016) The phytochemical landscape: linking trophic interactions and nutrient dynamics. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jedlicka JA, Greenberg R, Letourneau DK (2011) Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards. PLoS ONE 6:e27347.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027347 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Johst K, Schöps K (2003) Persistence and conservation of a consumer–resource metapopulation with local overexploitation of resources. Biol Conserv 109:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jorge LR et al (2017) Phylogenetic trophic specialization: a robust comparison of herbivorous guilds. Oecologia 185:551–559.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-017-3980-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kareiva PM, Shigesada N (1983) Analyzing insect movement as a correlated random walk. Oecologia 56:234–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/Bf00379695 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kittelson PM et al (2015) How functional traits, herbivory, and genetic diversity interact in Echinacea: implications for fragmented populations. Ecology 96:1877–1886.  https://doi.org/10.1890/14-1687.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kluger EC, Berlocher SH, Tooker JF, Hanks LM (2011) Consequences of habitat fragmentation for the Prairie-Endemic Weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus. Environ Entomol 40:1388–1396.  https://doi.org/10.1603/EN11054 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kolb A, Diekmann M (2005) Effects of life-history traits on responses of plant species to forest fragmentation. Conserv Biol 19:929–938.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00065.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kondoh M (2003) Habitat fragmentation resulting in overgrazing by herbivores. J Theor Biol 225:453–460.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(03)00279-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kruess A, Tscharntke T (1994) Habitat fragmentation, species loss, and biological control. Science 264:1581–1584.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.264.5165.1581 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lande R (1988) Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:1455–1460.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3420403 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lankau RA (2007) Specialist and generalist herbivores exert opposing selection on a chemical defense. New Phytol 175:176–184.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02090.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Leimu R, Vergeer P, Angeloni F, Ouborg N (2010) Habitat fragmentation, climate change, and inbreeding in plants. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1195:84–98.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05450.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liao J, Bearup D, Blasius B (2017) Diverse responses of species to landscape fragmentation in a simple food chain. J Anim Ecol 86:1169–1178.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12702 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lind EM, Myron EP, Giaccai J, Parker JD (2012) White-tailed deer alter specialist and generalist insect herbivory through plant traits. Environ Entomol 41:1409–1416.  https://doi.org/10.1603/EN12094 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  81. Mäntylä E, Klemola T, Laaksonen T (2011) Birds help plants: a meta-analysis of top-down trophic cascades caused by avian predators. Oecologia 165:143–151.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-010-1774-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martinson HM, Fagan WF (2014) Trophic disruption: a meta-analysis of how habitat fragmentation affects resource consumption in terrestrial arthropod systems. Ecol Lett 17:1178–1189.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12305 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Massé A, Côté SD (2012) Linking habitat heterogeneity to space use by large herbivores at multiple scales: from habitat mosaics to forest canopy openings. For Ecol Manage 285:67–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Miyashita T, Suzuki M, Ando D, Fujita G, Ochiai K, Asada M (2008) Forest edge creates small-scale variation in reproductive rate of sika deer. Popul Ecol 50:111–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10144-007-0068-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mols CMM, Visser ME (2002) Great tits can reduce caterpillar damage in apple orchards. J Appl Ecol 39:888–899.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00761.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mooney KA, Gruner DS, Barber NA, Van Bael SA, Philpott SM, Greenberg R (2010) Interactions among predators and the cascading effects of vertebrate insectivores on arthropod communities and plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:7335–7340.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1001934107 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mooney KA, Pratt RT, Singer MS (2012) The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores. PLoS ONE 7:e34403.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034403 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morante-Filho JC, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Lohbeck M, Tscharntke T, Faria D (2016) Tropical forest loss and its multitrophic effects on insect herbivory. Ecology 97:3315–3325.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1592 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moreira X, Abdala-Roberts L, Rasmann S, Castagneyrol B, Mooney KA (2016) Plant diversity effects on insect herbivores and their natural enemies: current thinking, recent findings, and future directions. Curr Opin Insect Sci 14:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2015.10.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Morrison JA, Brown LM (2004) Effect of herbivore exclosure caging on the invasive plant Aliaria petiolata in three southeastern New York forests. Bartonia 62:25–43Google Scholar
  91. Murphy SM, Battocletti AH, Tinghitella RM, Wimp GM, Ries L (2016) Complex community and evolutionary responses to habitat fragmentation and habitat edges: what can we learn from insect science? Curr Opin Insect Sci 14:61–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2016.01.007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nieminen M, Nouhuys S (2017) The roles of trophic interactions, competition and landscape in determining metacommunity structure of a seed-feeding weevil and its parasitoids. Ann Zool Fenn 54:83–95.  https://doi.org/10.5735/086.054.0109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nuttle T, Yerger EH, Stoleson SH, Ristau TE (2011) Legacy of top-down herbivore pressure ricochets back up multiple trophic levels in forest canopies over 30 years. Ecosphere 2:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1890/ES10-00108.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Öckinger E et al (2010) Life-history traits predict species responses to habitat area and isolation: a cross-continental synthesis. Ecol Lett 13:969–979.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01487.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ouborg NJ, Vergeer P, Mix C (2006) The rough edges of the conservation genetics paradigm for plants. J Ecol 94:1233–1248.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01167.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Piechnik DA, Lawler SP, Martinez ND (2008) Food-web assembly during a classic biogeographic study: species’“trophic breadth” corresponds to colonization order. Oikos 117:665–674.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.15915.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Poulin R, Krasnov BR, Mouillot D (2011) Host specificity in phylogenetic and geographic space. Trends Parasitol 27:355–361.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2011.05.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rand TA, Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T (2006) Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitats. Ecol Lett 9:603–614.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00911.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ridley CE, Hangelbroek HH, Wagenius S, Stanton-Geddes J, Shaw RG (2011) The effect of plant inbreeding and stoichiometry on Interactions with herbivores in nature: Echinacea angustifolia and its specialist aphid. PLoS ONE 6:e24762.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024762 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ries L, Debinski DM (2001) Butterfly responses to habitat edges in the highly fragmented prairies of Central Iowa. J Anim Ecol 70:840–852.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-8790.2001.00546.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ries L, Sisk TD (2004) A predictive model of edge effects. Ecology 85:2917–2926.  https://doi.org/10.1890/03-8021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ries L, Fletcher RJ Jr, Battin J, Sisk TD (2004) Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models, and variability explained. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:491–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ries L, Murphy SM, Wimp GM, Fletcher RJ (2017) Closing persistent gaps in knowledge about edge ecology. Curr Landsc Ecol Rep 2:30–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40823-017-0022-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Robbins CS, Dawson DK, Dowell BA (1989) Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states. Wildl Monogr 103:3–34Google Scholar
  105. Roland J, Taylor PD (1997) Insect parasitoid species respond to forest structure at different spatial scales. Nature 386:710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rossetti MR, Tscharntke T, Aguilar R, Batáry P (2017) Responses of insect herbivores and herbivory to habitat fragmentation: a hierarchical meta-analysis. Ecol Lett 20:264–272.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12723 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ryall KL, Fahrig L (2005) Habitat loss decreases predator–prey ratios in a pine-bark beetle system. Oikos 110:265–270.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13691.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ryall KL, Fahrig L (2006) Response of predators to loss and fragmentation of prey habitat: a review of theory. Ecology 87:1086–1093.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[1086:ROPTLA]2.0.CO;2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schtickzelle N, Baguette M (2003) Behavioural responses to habitat patch boundaries restrict dispersal and generate emigration–patch area relationships in fragmented landscapes. J Anim Ecol 72:533–545.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00723.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schüepp C, Uzman D, Herzog F, Entling MH (2014) Habitat isolation affects plant–herbivore–enemy interactions on cherry trees. Biol Control 71:56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Simberloff DS, Wilson EO (1969) Experimental zoogeography of islands: the colonization of empty islands. Ecology 50:278–296.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1934856 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Singer MC, Thomas CD, Parmesan C (1993) Rapid human-induced evolution of insect–host associations. Nature 366:681–683.  https://doi.org/10.1038/366681a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Singer MS, Lichter-Marck IH, Farkas TE, Aaron E, Whitney KD, Mooney KA (2014) Herbivore diet breadth mediates the cascading effects of carnivores in food webs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:9521–9526.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1401949111 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stamps JA, Buechner M, Krishnan VV (1987) The effects of edge permeability and habitat geometry on emigration from patches of habitat. Am Nat 129:533–552.  https://doi.org/10.1086/284656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T (2000) Butterfly community structure in fragmented habitats. Ecol Lett 3:449–456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2000.00175.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stireman JO, Singer MS (2003) Determinants of parasitoid–host associations: insights from a natural tachinid–lepidopteran community. Ecology 84:296–310.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0296:DOPHAI]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Swihart RK, Feng Z, Slade NA, Mason DM, Gehring TM (2001) Effects of habitat destruction and resource supplementation in a predator-prey metapopulation model. J Theor Biol 210:287–303.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.2001.2304 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tallamy DW, Shropshire KJ (2009) Ranking lepidopteran use of native versus introduced plants. Conserv Biol 23:941–947.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01202.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tscharntke T, Brandl R (2004) Plant-insect interactions in fragmented landscapes. Annu Rev Entomol 49:405–430.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.49.061802.123339 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tscharntke T, Steffan-Dewenter I, Kruess A, Thies C (2002) Contribution of small habitat fragments to conservation of insect communities of grassland–cropland landscapes. Ecol Appl 12:354–363.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[0354:COSHFT]2.0.CO;2 Google Scholar
  121. Tscharntke T et al (2012) Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes-eight hypotheses. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 87:661–685.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00216.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Valladares G, Salvo A, Cagnolo L (2006) Habitat fragmentation effects on trophic processes of insect-plant food webs. Conserv Biol 20:212–217.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00337.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Valladares G, Cagnolo L, Salvo A (2012) Forest fragmentation leads to food web contraction. Oikos 121:299–305.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19671.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Van Bael SA et al (2008) Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems. Ecology 89:928–934.  https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1976.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vidal MC, Murphy SM (2018) Bottom-up vs. top-down effects on terrestrial insect herbivores: a meta-analysis. Ecol Lett 21:138–150.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12874 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wagner D (2005) Caterpillars of eastern North America. Princeton field guides. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  127. Wagner DL (2011) Owlet caterpillars of eastern North America. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  128. Wagner D, Ferguson D, McCabe T, Reardon R (2002) Geometroid caterpillars of northeastern and Appalachian forests. USFS Technology Transfer Bulletin. FHTET-2001-10, Morgantown, WVGoogle Scholar
  129. Wheatall L, Nuttle T, Yerger E (2013) Indirect effects of pandemic deer overabundance inferred from caterpillar-host relations. Conserv Biol 27:1107–1116.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12077 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wimp GM, Murphy SM, Lewis D, Ries L (2011) Do edge responses cascade up or down a multi-trophic food web? Ecol Lett 14:863–870.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01656.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wirth R, Meyer ST, Leal IR, Tabarelli M (2008) Plant herbivore interactions at the forest edge. Progress in botany. Springer, New York, pp 423–448Google Scholar
  132. Yachi S, Loreau M (1999) Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:1463–1468PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zvereva EL, Kozlov MV (2016) The costs and effectiveness of chemical defenses in herbivorous insects: a meta-analysis. Ecol Monogr 86:107–124.  https://doi.org/10.1890/15-0911.1 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyWesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA

Personalised recommendations