, Volume 183, Issue 3, pp 739–749 | Cite as

Life history plasticity does not confer resilience to environmental change in the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum)

  • Courtney L. Davis
  • David A.W. Miller
  • Susan C. Walls
  • William J. Barichivich
  • Jeffrey Riley
  • Mary E. Brown
Population ecology – original research


Plasticity in life history strategies can be advantageous for species that occupy spatially or temporally variable environments. We examined how phenotypic plasticity influences responses of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, to disturbance events at the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR), FL, USA from 2009 to 2014. We observed periods of extensive drought early in the study, in contrast to high rainfall and expansive flooding events in later years. Flooding facilitated colonization of predatory fishes to isolated wetlands across the refuge. We employed multistate occupancy models to determine how this natural experiment influenced the occurrence of aquatic larvae and paedomorphic adults and what implications this may have for the population. We found that, in terms of occurrence, responses to environmental variation differed between larvae and paedomorphs, but plasticity (i.e. the ability to metamorphose rather than remain in aquatic environment) was not sufficient to buffer populations from declining as a result of environmental perturbations. Drought and fish presence negatively influenced occurrence dynamics of larval and paedomorphic mole salamanders and, consequently, contributed to observed short-term declines of this species. Overall occurrence of larval salamanders decreased from 0.611 in 2009 to 0.075 in 2014 and paedomorph occurrence decreased from 0.311 in 2009 to 0.121 in 2014. Although variation in selection pressures has likely maintained this polyphenism previously, our results suggest that continued changes in environmental variability and the persistence of fish in isolated wetlands could lead to a loss of paedomorphosis in the SMNWR population and, ultimately, impact regional persistence in the future.


Plasticity Climate Occupancy Species interactions Paedomorphosis 



We thank Katherine M. O’Donnell, Katriona Shea, and Tyler Wagner for insightful feedback on an earlier version of this manuscript. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government. This manuscript is contribution#553 of the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) of the US Geological Survey.

Author contribution statement

CLD and DAWM analyzed occurrence data and prepared the manuscript; SCW, WJB, and JWR designed the study and along with MEB led data collection in the field. All authors contributed input into the design and interpretation of the analysis and contributed to writing the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

442_2017_3810_MOESM1_ESM.docx (131 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 130 kb)
442_2017_3810_MOESM2_ESM.docx (66 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 66 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (Outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Courtney L. Davis
    • 1
    • 2
  • David A.W. Miller
    • 1
  • Susan C. Walls
    • 3
  • William J. Barichivich
    • 3
  • Jeffrey Riley
    • 4
  • Mary E. Brown
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Ecosystem Science and ManagementPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Intercollege Graduate Ecology ProgramPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.US Geological SurveyWetland and Aquatic Research CenterGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.US Geological SurveySouth Atlantic Water Science CenterNorcrossUSA

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