Environmental filtering of eudicot lineages underlies phylogenetic clustering in tropical South American flooded forests
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The phylogenetic community assembly approach has been used to elucidate the role of ecological and historical processes in shaping tropical tree communities. Recent studies have shown that stressful environments, such as seasonally dry, white-sand and flooded forests tend to be phylogenetically clustered, arguing for niche conservatism as the main driver for this pattern. Very few studies have attempted to identify the lineages that contribute to such assembly patterns. We aimed to improve our understanding of the assembly of flooded forest tree communities in Northern South America by asking the following questions: are seasonally flooded forests phylogenetically clustered? If so, which angiosperm lineages are over-represented in seasonally flooded forests? To assess our hypotheses, we investigated seasonally flooded and terra firme forests from the Magdalena, Orinoco and Amazon Basins, in Colombia. Our results show that, regardless of the river basin in which they are located, seasonally flooded forests of Northern South America tend to be phylogenetically clustered, which means that the more abundant taxa in these forests are more closely related to each other than expected by chance. Based on our alpha and beta phylodiversity analyses we interpret that eudicots are more likely to adapt to extreme environments such as seasonally flooded forests, which indicates the importance of environmental filtering in the assembly of the Neotropical flora.
KeywordsFloodplains Várzea Igapó Phylobetadiversity Phylogenetic structure
We thank Ángela Cano, Sasha Cárdenas, Luisa Fernanda Casas, Diego Felipe Correa, Mabel Suescún, María Natalia Umaña, Boris Villanueva for the information provided from the plots they established. AMA would like to thank James Richardson and Toby Pennington for helpful discussions on the results reported here and the Universidad de Los Andes for providing funding to visit the University of California, Berkeley where this research was envisioned. MBC received fellowships from CAPES-Brazil (Grants BEX7913/13-3 and PNPD #1454013). We are thankful to Dr. Ethan Householder and two anonymous reviewers who helped improve an earlier version of this manuscript.
Author contribution statement
PRS and AMA formulated the idea. AMA, MBC and PVAF developed the methodology. AMA and MBC wrote the manuscript; other authors provided advice and edited the manuscript.
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