Personality, foraging behavior and specialization: integrating behavioral and food web ecology at the individual level

Abstract

Behavioral traits and diet were traditionally thought to be highly plastic within individuals. This view was espoused in the widespread use of optimality models, which broadly predict that individuals can modify behavioral traits and diet across ecological contexts to maximize fitness. Yet, research conducted over the past 15 years supports an alternative view; fundamental behavioral traits (e.g., activity level, exploration, sociability, boldness and aggressiveness) and diet often vary among individuals and this variation persists over time and across contexts. This phenomenon has been termed animal personality with regard to behavioral traits and individual specialization with regard to diet. While these aspects of individual-level phenotypic variation have been thus far studied in isolation, emerging evidence suggests that personality and individual specialization may covary, or even be causally related. Building on this work, we present the overarching hypothesis that animal personality can drive specialization through individual differences in various aspects of consumer foraging behavior. Specifically, we suggest pathways by which consumer personality traits influence foraging activity, risk-dependent foraging, roles in social foraging groups, spatial aspects of foraging and physiological drivers of foraging, which in turn can lead to consistent individual differences in food resource use. These pathways provide a basis for generating testable hypotheses directly linking animal personality to ecological dynamics, a major goal in contemporary behavioral ecology.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Aguillon SM, Duckworth RA (2015) Kin aggression and resource availability influence phenotype-dependent dispersal in a passerine bird. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 69:625–633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alanärä A, Burns MD, Metcalfe NB (2001) Intraspecific resource partitioning in brown trout: the temporal distribution of foraging is determined by social rank. J Anim Ecol 70:980–986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Alcalay Y, Scharf I, Ovadia O (2015) Foraging syndromes and trait variation in antlions along a climatic gradient. Oecologia 178:1093–1103

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Allan JD, Flecker AS, McClintock NL (1987) Prey preference of stoneflies: sedentary vs mobile prey. Oikos 49:323–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Aplin LM, Farine DR, Mann RP, Sheldon BC (2014) Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 281:20141016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Araújo MS, Bolnick DI, Layman CA (2011) The ecological causes of individual specialisation. Ecol Lett 14:948–958

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Arim M, Abades SR, Laufer G, Loureiro M, Marquet PA (2010) Food web structure and body size: trophic position and resource acquisition. Oikos 119:147–153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Beacham JL (1988) The relative importance of body size and aggressive experience as determinants of dominance in pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus. Anim Behav 36:621–623

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bearhop S, Adams CE, Waldron S, Fuller RA, MacLeod H (2004) Determining trophic niche width: a novel approach using stable isotope analysis. J Anim Ecol 73:1007–1012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Beaugrand JP, Payette D, Goulet C (1996) Conflict outcome in male green swordtail fish dyads (Xiphophorus helleri): interaction of body size, prior dominance/subordination experience, and prior residency. Behaviour 133:303–319

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bell AM, Hankison SJ, Laskowski KL (2009) The repeatability of behaviour: a meta-analysis. Anim Behav 77:771–783

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bijleveld AI, Massourakis G, van der Marel A, Dekinga A, Spaans B, van Gils JA, Piersma T (2014) Personality drives physiological adjustments and is not related to survival. P R Soc Lond B Bio 281:20133135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Biro PA, Stamps JA (2008) Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity? Trends Ecol Evol 23:361–368

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Biro PA, Stamps JA (2010) Do consistent individual differences in metabolic rate promote consistent individual differences in behavior? Trends Ecol Evol 25:653–659

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bolnick DI, Svanback R, Fordyce JA, Yang LH, Davis JM, Hulsey CD, Forister ML (2003) The ecology of individuals: incidence and implications of individual specialization. Am Nat 161:1–28

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bolnick D, Amarasekare P, Araújo MS, Bürger R, Levine JM, Novak M, Rudolf VHW, Schreiber SJ, Urban MC, Vasseur DA (2011) Why intraspecific trait variation matters in community ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 26:183–192

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Boon AK, Réale D, Boutin S (2007) The interaction between personality, offspring fitness and food abundance in North American red squirrels. Ecol Lett 10:1094–1104

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Boon AK, Réale D, Boutin S (2008) Personality, habitat use, and their consequences for survival in North American red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Oikos 117:1321–1328

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Briffa M, Sneddon LU, Wilson AJ (2015) Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour. Biol Lett 11:20141007

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Britt E, Hicks J, Bennett A (2006) The energetic consequences of dietary specialization in populations of the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. J Exp Biol 209:3164–3169

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Brommer JE (2013) On between-individual and residual (co) variances in the study of animal personality: are you willing to take the “individual gambit”? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1027–1032

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Bryan JE, Larkin P (1972) Food specialization by individual trout. J Fish Res Board Can 29:1615–1624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Careau V, Garland T Jr (2012) Performance, personality, and energetics: correlation, causation, and mechanism. Physiol Biochem Zool 85:543–571

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Careau V, Thomas D, Humphries M, Réale D (2008) Energy metabolism and animal personality. Oikos 117:641–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Carter AJ, Goldizen AW, Tromp SA (2010) Agamas exhibit behavioral syndromes: bolder males bask and feed more but may suffer higher predation. Behav Ecol 21:655–661

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Cervo R, Dapporto L, Beani L, Strassmann J, Turillazzi S (2008) On status badges and quality signals in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus: body size, facial colour patterns and hierarchical rank. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 275:1189–1196

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Chapman BB, Hulthén K, Blomqvist DR, Hansson L, Nilsson J, Brodersen J, Nilsson PA, Skov C, Brönmark C (2011) To boldly go: individual differences in boldness influence migratory tendency. Ecol Lett 14:871–876

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Christianson D, Creel S (2008) Risk effects in elk: sex-specific responses in grazing and browsing due to predation risk from wolves. Behav Ecol 19:1258–1266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Clobert J, Galliard L, Cote J, Meylan S, Massot M (2009) Informed dispersal, heterogeneity in animal dispersal syndromes and the dynamics of spatially structured populations. Ecol Lett 12:197–209

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Clutton-Brock T, Huchard E (2013) Social competition and its consequences in female mammals. J Zool 289:151–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Colléter M, Brown C (2011) Personality traits predict hierarchy rank in male rainbowfish social groups. Anim Behav 81:1231–1237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Cooper WE (2000) Tradeoffs between predation risk and feeding in a lizard, the broad-headed skink (Eumeces laticeps). Behaviour 137:1175–1189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Cote J, Clobert J (2007) Social personalities influence natal dispersal in a lizard. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 274:383–390

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Cote J, Clobert J, Brodin T, Fogarty S, Sih A (2010) Personality-dependent dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured populations. Philos T Roy Soc B 365:4065–4076

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Cote J, Fogarty S, Tymen B, Sih A, Brodin T (2013) Personality-dependent dispersal cancelled under predation risk. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 280:20132349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Daily GC, Ehrlich PR (1994) Influence of social status on individual foraging and community structure in a bird guild. Oecologia 100:153–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Dall SR, Griffith SC (2014) An empiricist guide to animal personality variation in ecology and evolution. Front Ecol Evol 2:3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Dall SR, Bell AM, Bolnick DI, Ratnieks FL (2012) An evolutionary ecology of individual differences. Ecol Lett 15:1189–1198

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. David M, Auclair Y, Cézilly F (2011) Personality predicts social dominance in female zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, in a feeding context. Anim Behav 81:219–224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. de Roos AM, Persson L (2013) Population and community ecology of ontogenetic development. Princeton University Press

  41. Dingemanse NJ, Dochtermann NA (2013) Quantifying individual variation in behaviour: mixed-effect modelling approaches. J Anim Ecol 82:39–54

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Dingemanse NJ, Both C, Drent PJ, Van Oers K, Van Noordwijk AJ (2002) Repeatability and heritability of exploratory behaviour in great tits from the wild. Anim Behav 64:929–938

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. DiRienzo N, Pruitt JN, Hedrick AV (2013) The combined behavioural tendencies of predator and prey mediate the outcome of their interaction. Anim Behav 86:317–322

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Estes J, Riedman M, Staedler M, Tinker M, Lyon B (2003) Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes and implications. J Anim Ecol 72:144–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Exnerová A, Svádová KH, Fučíková E, Drent P, Štys P (2010) Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 277:723–728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Farwell M, Fuzzen MM, Bernier N, McLaughlin R (2014) Individual differences in foraging behavior and cortisol levels in recently emerged brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:781–790

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Favati A, Leimar O, Løvlie H (2014) Personality predicts social dominance in male domestic fowl. PLoS ONE 9:e103535

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Fox RA, Ladage LD, Roth TC, Pravosudov VV (2009) Behavioural profile predicts dominance status in mountain chickadees, Poecile gambeli. Anim Behav 77:1441–1448

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Fraser DF, Gilliam JF, Daley MJ, Le AN, Skalski GT (2001) Explaining leptokurtic movement distributions: intrapopulation variation in boldness and exploration. Am Nat 158:124–135

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Funghi C, Leitão AV, Ferreira AC, Mota PG, Cardoso GC (2015) Social dominance in a gregarious bird is related to body size but not to standard personality assays. Ethology 121:84–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Fürtbauer I (2015) Consistent individual differences in haemolymph density reflect risk propensity in a marine invertebrate. R Soc Open Sci 2:140482

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Gende S, Quinn T (2004) The relative importance of prey density and social dominance in determining energy intake by bears feeding on Pacific salmon. Can J Zool 82:75–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Godin J-GJ (1990) Diet selection under the risk of predation. In: Hughes RN (ed) Behavioural mechanisms of food selection. Springer, Berlin, pp 739–769

    Google Scholar 

  54. González GG, Brokordt KB, Winkler FE (2010) Repeatability of physiological traits in juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Mar Biol 157:2195–2203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. González-Bernal E, Brown GP, Shine R (2014) Invasive cane toads: social facilitation depends upon an individual’s personality. PLoS One 9:e102880

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Gosling SD (2001) From mice to men: what can we learn about personality from animal research? Psychol Bull 127:45–86

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Gownaris NJ, Pikitch EK, Ojwang WO, Michener R, Kaufman L (2015) Predicting species’ vulnerability in a massively perturbed system: the fishes of Lake Turkana Kenya. PLoS One 10(5):e0127027

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Griffen BD, Toscano BJ, Gatto J (2012) The role of individual behavior type in mediating indirect interactions. Ecology 93:1935–1943

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Grimm V, Railsback SF (2005) Individual-based modeling and ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  60. Grinsted L, Pruitt JN, Settepani V, Bilde T (2013) Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 280:704–717

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Groothuis TG, Trillmich F (2011) Unfolding personalities: the importance of studying ontogeny. Dev Psychobiol 53:641–655

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Hansen EA, Closs GP (2005) Diel activity and home range size in relation to food supply in a drift-feeding stream fish. Behav Ecol 16:640–648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Harrison PM, Gutowsky LFG, Martins EG, Patterson DA, Cooke SJ, Power M (2015) Personality-dependent spatial ecology occurs independently from dispersal in wild burbot (Lota lota). Behav Ecol 26:483–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Hensley NM, Cook TC, Lang M, Petelle MB, Blumstein DT (2012) Personality and habitat segregation in giant sea anemones (Condylactis gigantea). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 426:1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Hernández L, Laundré JW (2005) Foraging in the ‘landscape of fear’ and its implications for habitat use and diet quality of elk Cervus elaphus and bison Bison bison. Wildl Biol 11:215–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Holbrook SJ, Schmitt RJ (1992) Causes and consequences of dietary specialization in surfperches: patch choice and intraspecific competition. Ecology 73:402–412

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Houtman R, Dill LM (1998) The influence of predation risk on diet selectivity: a theoretical analysis. Evol Ecol 12:251–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Huey RB, Pianka ER (1981) Ecological consequences of foraging mode. Ecology 62:991–999

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Huntingford FA (1976) The relationship between anti-predator behaviour and aggression among conspecifics in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus Aculeatus. Anim Behav 24:245–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Hyslop E (1980) Stomach contents analysis-a review of methods and their application. J Fish Biol 17:411–429

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Ibrahim A, Huntingford F (1989) Laboratory and field studies of the effect of predation risk on foraging in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behaviour 109:46–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Jolles JW, Ostojić L, Clayton NS (2013) Dominance, pair bonds and boldness determine social-foraging tactics in rooks, Corvus frugilegus. Anim Behav 85:1261–1269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Keiser CN, Pruitt JN (2014) Personality composition is more important than group size in determining collective foraging behaviour in the wild. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 281:20141424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Keynan O, Ridley AR, Lotem A (2014) Social foraging strategies and acquisition of novel foraging skills in cooperatively breeding Arabian babblers. Behav Ecol 26:207–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Kohda M (1994) Individual specialized foraging repertoires in the piscivorous cichlid fish Lepidiolamprologus profundicola. Anim Behav 48:1123–1131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Kurvers RH, Prins HH, van Wieren SE, van Oers K, Nolet BA, Ydenberg RC (2010) The effect of personality on social foraging: shy barnacle geese scrounge more. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 277:601–608

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Layman CA, Newsome SD, Crawford TG (2015) Individual-level niche specialization within populations: emerging areas of study. Oecologia 178:1–4

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Lima SL, Dill LM (1990) Behavioral decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Can J Zool 68:619–640

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. MacArthur RH, Pianka ER (1966) On optimal use of a patchy environment. Am Nat 100:603–609

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Madin EM, Madin JS, Booth DJ (2011) Landscape of fear visible from space. Sci Rep 1:14

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Mafli A, Wakamatsu K, Roulin A (2011) Melanin-based coloration predicts aggressiveness and boldness in captive eastern Hermann’s tortoises. Anim Behav 81:859–863

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Marshall HH, Carter AJ, Ashford A, Rowcliffe JM, Cowlishaw G (2015) Social effects on foraging behavior and success depend on local environmental conditions. Ecol Evol 5:475–492

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. McGhee KE, Pintor LM, Bell AM (2013) Reciprocal behavioral plasticity and behavioral types during predator-prey interactions. Am Nat 182:704–717

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Metcalfe NB, Wright PJ, Thorpe JE (1992) Relationships between social status, otolith size at first feeding and subsequent growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J Anim Ecol 61(3):585–589

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Michelena P, Sibbald AM, Erhard HW, McLeod JE (2009) Effects of group size and personality on social foraging: the distribution of sheep across patches. Behav Ecol 20:145–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Milinski M (1982) Optimal foraging: the influence of intraspecific competition on diet selection. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 11:109–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Minderman J, Reid JM, Hughes M, Denny MJ, Hogg S, Evans PG, Whittingham MJ (2010) Novel environment exploration and home range size in starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Behav Ecol 21:1321–1329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Modlmeier AP, Liebmann JE, Foitzik S (2012) Diverse societies are more productive: a lesson from ants. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 279:2142–2150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Nespolo RF, Franco M (2007) Whole-animal metabolic rate is a repeatable trait: a meta-analysis. J Exp Biol 210:2000–2005

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Patrick SC, Bearhop S, Grémillet D, Lescroël A, Grecian WJ, Bodey TW, Keith C, Hamer KC, Wakefield E, Le Nuz M, Votier SC (2014) Individual differences in searching behaviour and spatial foraging consistency in a central place marine predator. Oikos 123:33–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Pelletier F, Garant D, Hendry AP (2009) Eco-evolutionary dynamics. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 364:1483–1489

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Perry G (1999) The evolution of search modes: ecological versus phylogenetic perspectives. Am Nat 153:98–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Post DM, Palkovacs EP (2009) Eco-evolutionary feedbacks in community and ecosystem ecology: interactions between the ecological theatre and the evolutionary play. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 364:1629–1640

    Google Scholar 

  94. Potier S, Carpentier A, Grémillet D, Leroy B, Lescroël A (2015) Individual repeatability of foraging behaviour in a marine predator, the great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo. Anim Behav 103:83–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Pruitt JN, Riechert SE, Jones TC (2008) Behavioural syndromes and their fitness consequences in a socially polymorphic spider, Anelosimus studiosus. Anim Behav 76:871–879

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Pruitt JN, Demes KW, Dittrich-Reed DR (2011) Temperature mediates shifts in individual aggressiveness, activity level, and social behavior in a spider. Ethology 117:318–325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Pruitt JN, Stachowicz JJ, Sih A (2012) Behavioral types of predator and prey jointly determine prey survival: potential implications for the maintenance of within-species behavioral variation. Am Nat 179:217–227

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Pyke GH, Pulliam HR, Charnov EL (1977) Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Q Rev Biol 52:137–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Quinn JL, Cresswell W (2005) Personality, anti-predation behaviour and behavioural plasticity in the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Behaviour 142:1377–1402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Quinn JL, Cole EF, Patrick SC, Sheldon BC (2011) Scale and state dependence of the relationship between personality and dispersal in a great tit population. J Anim Ecol 80:918–928

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Rall BC, Kalinkat G, Ott D, Vucic-Pestic O, Brose U (2011) Taxonomic versus allometric constraints on non-linear interaction strengths. Oikos 120:483–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Réale D, Reader SM, Sol D, McDougall PT, Dingemanse NJ (2007) Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution. Biol Rev 82:291–318

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Réale D, Garant D, Humphries MM, Bergeron P, Careau V, Montiglio P-O (2010) Personality and the emergence of the pace-of-life syndrome concept at the population level. Philos Trans R Soc B 365:4051–4063

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Rosenblatt AE, Heithaus MR (2011) Does variation in movement tactics and trophic interactions among American alligators create habitat linkages? J Anim Ecol 80:786–798

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Rothley K, Schmitz OJ, Cohon JL (1997) Foraging to balance conflicting demands: novel insights from grasshoppers under predation risk. Behav Ecol 8:551–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Royauté R, Pruitt JN (2015) Varying predator personalities generates contrasting prey communities in an agroecosystem. Ecology 96:2902–2911

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Rudin FS, Briffa M (2012) Is boldness a resource-holding potential trait? Fighting prowess and changes in startle response in the sea anemone, Actinia equina. Proc Biol Sci 279:1904–1910

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Rudolf VH, Rasmussen NL (2013) Population structure determines functional differences among species and ecosystem processes. Nat Commun 4:2318

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Scharf I, Nulman E, Ovadia O, Bouskila A (2006) Efficiency evaluation of two competing foraging modes under different conditions. Am Nat 168:350–357

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Schmitz OJ (2008) Effects of predator hunting mode on grassland ecosystem function. Science 319:952–954

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Schoener TW (1986) Mechanistic approaches to community ecology: a new reductionism. Am Zool 26:81–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Schreiber SJ, Burger R, Bolnick DI (2011) The community effects of phenotypic and genetic variation within a predator population. Ecology 92:1582–1593

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Seaburg KG (1957) A stomach sampler for live fish. Prog Fish Cult 19:137–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Sih A, Christensen B (2001) Optimal diet theory: when does it work, and when and why does it fail? Anim Behav 61:379–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Sih A, Watters JV (2005) The mix matters: behavioural types and group dynamics in water striders. Behaviour 142:1417–1431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Sih A, Bell A, Johnson JC (2004) Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends Ecol Evol 19:372–378

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Sih A, Cote J, Evans M, Fogarty S, Pruitt J (2012) Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. Ecol Lett 15:278–289

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Sih A, Mathot KJ, Moirón M, Montiglio P-O, Wolf M, Dingemanse NJ (2015) Animal personality and state–behaviour feedbacks: a review and guide for empiricists. Trends Ecol Evol 30:50–60

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Smith BR, Blumstein DT (2008) Fitness consequences of personality: a meta-analysis. Behav Ecol 19:448–455

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Stamps J, Groothuis TG (2010) The development of animal personality: relevance, concepts and perspectives. Biol Rev 85:301–325

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  122. Svanback R, Bolnick DI (2007) Intraspecific competition drives increased resource use diversity within a natural population. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 274:839–844

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Sweeney K, Cusack B, Armagost F, O’Brien T, Keiser CN, Pruitt JN (2013) Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts. Behav Ecol 24:1205–1210

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Thompson JS, Watts PC, Pottinger TG, Sneddon LU (2011) Physiological and genetic correlates of boldness: characterising the mechanisms of behavioural variation in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Horm Behav 59:67–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Tikkanen P, Muotka T, Huhta A, Juntunen A (1997) The roles of active predator choice and prey vulnerability in determining the diet of predatory stonefly (Plecoptera) nymphs. J Anim Ecol 66:36–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Toscano BJ, Griffen BD (2012) Predatory crab size diversity and bivalve consumption in oyster reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 445:65–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Toscano BJ, Griffen BD (2014) Trait-mediated functional responses: predator behavioural type mediates prey consumption. J Anim Ecol 83:1469–1477

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Toscano BJ, Monaco CJ (2015) Testing for relationships between individual crab behavior and metabolic rate across ecological contexts. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 69:1343–1351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Toscano BJ, Gatto J, Griffen BD (2014) Effect of predation threat on repeatability of individual crab behavior revealed by mark-recapture. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:519–527

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Urszán TJ, Török J, Hettyey A, Garamszegi LZ, Herczeg G (2015) Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles. Oecologia 178:129–140

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. van der Merwe M, Brown JS (2008) Mapping the landscape of fear of the cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris). J Mammal 89:1162–1169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. van Overveld T, Matthysen E (2010) Personality predicts spatial responses to food manipulations in free-ranging great tits (Parus major). Biol Lett 6:187–190

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Van Valen L (1965) Morphological variation and width of ecological niche. Am Nat 99:377–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Vickery WL, Giraldeau L-A, Templeton JJ, Kramer DL, Chapman CA (1991) Producers, scroungers, and group foraging. Am Nat 137:847–863

    Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Waite TA (1987) Vigilance in the white-breasted nuthatch: effects of dominance and sociality. Auk 104:429–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Ward AJ, Webster MM, Hart PJ (2006) Intraspecific food competition in fishes. Fish Fish 7:231–261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Webster MM, Ward AJW, Hart PJB (2009) Individual boldness affects interspecific interactions in sticklebacks. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:511–520

    Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Werner EE, Gilliam JF (1984) The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 15:393–425

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Werner EE, Gilliam JF, Hall DJ, Mittelbach GG (1983) An experimental test of the effects of predation risk on habitat use in fish. Ecology 64:1540–1548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. White CR, Schimpf NG, Cassey P (2013) The repeatability of metabolic rate declines with time. J Exp Biol 216:1763–1765

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Wilson AD, Krause J (2012) Metamorphosis and animal personality: a neglected opportunity. Trends Ecol Evol 27:529–531

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Wilson AJ, Grimmer A, Rosenthal GG (2013) Causes and consequences of contest outcome: aggressiveness, dominance and growth in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1151–1161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Wolf M, Weissing FJ (2010) An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences. Proc R Soc Lond B Bio 365:3959–3968

    Google Scholar 

  144. Wolf M, Van Doorn GS, Leimar O, Weissing FJ (2007) Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities. Nature 447:581–584

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Woo KJ, Elliott KH, Davidson M, Gaston AJ, Davoren GK (2008) Individual specialization in diet by a generalist marine predator reflects specialization in foraging behaviour. J Anim Ecol 77:1082–1091

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the Eco-DAS (Ecological Dissertations in the Aquatic Sciences) program (supported by National Science Foundation award OCE-1356192 and the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography) for funding and fostering this collaboration. Additional support was provided by an Arnold O. Beckman Postdoctoral Fellowship to B. J. Toscano. We also thank P. F. Kemp, L. J. Baker and the Rudolf and Miller laboratories at Rice University for helpful feedback that improved the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Benjamin J. Toscano.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Communicated by Craig A. Layman.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Toscano, B.J., Gownaris, N.J., Heerhartz, S.M. et al. Personality, foraging behavior and specialization: integrating behavioral and food web ecology at the individual level. Oecologia 182, 55–69 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-016-3648-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Behavioral type/syndrome
  • Diet breadth
  • Food resource use
  • Predator–prey
  • Temperament