Do birds see the forest for the trees? Scale-dependent effects of tree diversity on avian predation of artificial larvae
- 680 Downloads
The enemies hypothesis states that reduced insect herbivory in mixed-species stands can be attributed to more effective top–down control by predators with increasing plant diversity. Although evidence for this mechanism exists for invertebrate predators, studies on avian predation are comparatively rare and have not explicitly tested the effects of diversity at different spatial scales, even though heterogeneity at macro- and micro-scales can influence bird foraging selection. We studied bird predation in an established forest diversity experiment in SW Finland, using artificial larvae installed on birch, alder and pine trees. Effects of tree species diversity and densities on bird predation were tested at two different scales: between plots and within the neighbourhood around focal trees. At the neighbourhood scale, birds preferentially foraged on focal trees surrounded by a higher diversity of neighbours. However, predation rates did not increase with tree species richness at the plot level and were instead negatively affected by tree height variation within the plot. The highest probability of predation was observed on pine, and rates of predation increased with the density of pine regardless of scale. Strong tree species preferences observed may be due to a combination of innate bird species preferences and opportunistic foraging on profitable-looking artificial prey. This study therefore finds partial support for the enemies hypothesis and highlights the importance of spatial scale and focal tree species in modifying trophic interactions between avian predators and insect herbivores in forest ecosystems.
KeywordsBiodiversity and ecosystem functioning Insectivorous birds Insect pests Satakunta forest diversity experiment Tri-trophic interactions
We are grateful to Fatih Kayaanan, Miika Laihonen and Elisa Männistö for help in the field and to Ilkka Jussila for installation of the camera traps. This study was financially supported by the grant from the Kone Foundation.
Author contribution statement
JK designed the study, KR and JK conducted fieldwork, EWM performed statistical analyses and wrote the manuscript. All authors have been involved in editing the manuscript drafts.
- Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B (2012) lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classesGoogle Scholar
- Bereczki K, Csoka G, Ódor P, Baldi A (2012) Birds as control agents of caterpillars in oak forests. In: BOU proceedings ecosystem services: do we need birds? http://www.bou.org.uk/bouproc-net/ecosystemservices/bereczki-et-al.pdf
- Eeva T, Lehikoinen E, Pohjalainen T (1997) Pollution-related variation in food supply and breeding success in two hole-nesting passerines. Ecology 78:1120–1131. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1997)078[1120:PRVIFS]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Fox J, Weisberg S (2011) An R companion to applied regression, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical ComputingGoogle Scholar
- Sobek S, Scherber C, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T (2009) Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany’s largest connected deciduous forest. Oecologia 160:279–288. doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1304-2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging Theory, 1st edn. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Zou Y, Sang W, Bai F, Axmacher JC (2013) Relationships between plant diversity and the abundance and α-diversity of predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a mature Asian temperate forest ecosystem. PLoS ONE 8:e82792. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082792 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar