, Volume 177, Issue 2, pp 453–466

Fruit secondary compounds mediate the retention time of seeds in the guts of Neotropical fruit bats

Plant-microbe-animal interactions - Original research

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3096-2

Cite this article as:
Baldwin, J.W. & Whitehead, S.R. Oecologia (2015) 177: 453. doi:10.1007/s00442-014-3096-2


Plants often recruit frugivorous animals to transport their seeds; however, gut passage can have varying effects on plant fitness depending on the physical and chemical treatment of the seed, the distance seeds are transported, and the specific site of deposition. One way in which plants can mediate the effects of gut passage on fitness is by producing fruit secondary compounds that influence gut-retention time (GRT). Using frugivorous bats (Carollia perspicillata: Phyllostomidae) and Neotropical plants in the genus Piper, we compared GRT of seeds among five plant species (Piper colonense, Piper peltatum, Piper reticulatum, Piper sancti-felicis, and Piper silvivagum) and investigated the role of fruit amides (piperine, piplartine and whole fruit amide extracts from P. reticulatum) in mediating GRT. Our results showed interspecific differences in GRT; P. reticulatum seeds passed most slowly, while P. silvivagum and P. colonense seeds passed most rapidly. Piplartine and P. reticulatum amide extracts decreased GRT, while piperine had no effect. In addition, we examined the effects of GRT on seed germination success and speed in laboratory conditions. For germination success, the effects were species specific; germination success increased with GRT for P. peltatum but not for other species. GRT did not influence germination speed in any of the species examined. Plant secondary compounds have primarily been studied in the context of their defensive role against herbivores and pathogens, but may also play a key role in mediating seed dispersal interactions.


Fruit chemistry Seed dispersal Amides Carollia Piper 

Supplementary material

442_2014_3096_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (458 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 458 kb)
442_2014_3096_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (316 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 316 kb)
442_2014_3096_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (3.8 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 3870 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Natural ScienceHampshire CollegeAmherstUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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