The identification of the demographic processes responsible for the decline in population growth rate (λ) in disturbed areas would allow conservation efforts to be efficiently directed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are used for this purpose, but it is unclear whether the conclusions drawn from their analysis are sensitive to how functional structures (the functions that describe how survival, growth and fecundity vary with individual size) are selected. We constructed 12 IPMs that differed in their functional structure by combining two reproduction models and three functional expressions (generalized linear, cubic and additive models), each with and without simplification. Models were parameterized with data from two populations of two endangered cacti subject to different disturbance intensities. For each model, we identified the demographic processes that most affected λ in the presence of disturbance. Simulations were performed on artificial data and analyzed as above to assess the generality of the results. In both empirical and simulated data, the same processes were identified as making the largest contribution to changes in λ regardless of the functional structure. The major differences in the results were due to misspecification of the fecundity functions, whilst functional expression and model simplification had lesser effects. Therefore, as long as the demographic attributes of the species are well known and incorporated into the model, IPMs will robustly identify the processes that most affect the growth of populations subject to disturbance, making them a reliable tool for developing conservation strategies.
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B.A. Santini, C. Ureta, V. Tinoco and A. Martínez-Ballesté helped us during the fieldwork. E.J.G. thanks the National Council of Science and Technology (CoNaCyT) for the grant received during his PhD studies and the Graduate Program in Biological Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). We appreciate the valuable comments provided by two anonymous reviewers. We thank the community of Concepción Buenavista for their invaluable support in allowing us to work on their land. This research was carried out in compliance with the laws of Mexico.
Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Communicated by Miguel Franco.
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González, E.J., Rees, M. & Martorell, C. Identifying the demographic processes relevant for species conservation in human-impacted areas: does the model matter?. Oecologia 171, 347–356 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2432-7
- Human disturbance
- Integral projection models
- Model selection
- Population dynamics