Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 169, Issue 1, pp 125–133 | Cite as

Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation

  • Gilles San Martin y GomezEmail author
  • Hans Van Dyck
Population ecology - Original research paper

Abstract

Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2–4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

Keywords

Anthropogenic landscapes Contemporary evolution Dispersal Thermoregulation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to Dido Gosse, Hubert Baltus and Melanie Gibbs for assistance with breeding grasshoppers. We also thank two anonymous referees for their valuable comments. GSM was supported by a PhD grant of the FRIA fund (Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture; FRS-FNRS, Belgium). This is publication BRC235 of the Biodiversity Research Center (UCL).

References

  1. Badyaev AV (2009) Evolutionary significance of phenotypic accommodation in novel environments: an empirical test of the Baldwin effect. Philos Trans R Soc B 364:1125–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baguette M, Van Dyck H (2007) Landscape connectivity and animal behavior: functional grain as a key determinant for dispersal. Landsc Ecol 22:1117–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benton TG, Clair JJHS, Plaistow SJ (2008) Maternal effects mediated by maternal age: from life histories to population dynamics. J Anim Ecol 77:1038–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berner D, Blanckenhorn W (2006) Grasshopper ontogeny in relation to time constraints: adaptive divergence and stasis. J Anim Ecol 75:130–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cherrill A (2002) Relationships between oviposition date, hatch date, and offspring size in the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. Ecol Entomol 27:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Detzel P (1998) Die Heuschrecken Baden-Württembergs. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  7. Dingle H, Holyoak M (2001) The evolutionary ecology of movement. Evolutionary ecology. Concepts and case studies. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 247–264Google Scholar
  8. Ditchkoff S, Saalfeld S, Gibson C (2006) Animal behavior in urban ecosystems : modifications due to human-induced stress. Urban Ecosyst 9:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans KL, Gaston KJ, Sharp SP, McGowan A, Hatchwell BJ (2009) The effect of urbanisation on avian morphology and latitudinal gradients in body size. Oikos 118:251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fielding D, Defoliart L (2007) Growth, development, and nutritional physiology of grasshoppers from subarctic and temperate regions. Physiol Biochem Zool 80:607–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gibb H, Hjalten J, Ball J, Pettersson R, Landin J, Alvini O, Danell K (2006) Wing loading and habitat selection in forest beetles: Are red-listed species poorer dispersers or more habitat-specific than common congenerics? Biol Conserv 132:250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grayson FWL, Hassall M (1985) Effects of rabbit grazing on population variables of Chorthippus brunneus (Orthoptera). Oikos 44:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hassall M, Walters R, Telfer M, Hassall M (2006) Why does a grasshopper have fewer, larger offspring at its range limits? J Evol Biol 19:267–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hassall C, Thompson D, Harvey I (2009) Variation in morphology between core and marginal populations of three British damselflies. Aquat Insects 31:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hatle J, Crowley M, Andrews A, Juliano S (2002) Geographic variation of reproductive tactics in lubber grasshoppers. Oecologia 132:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huey R, Hertz P, Sinervo B (2003) Behavioral drive versus behavioral inertia in evolution: a null model approach. Am Nat 161:357–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hughes C, Dytham C, Hill J (2007) Modelling and analysing evolution of dispersal in populations at expanding range boundaries. Ecol Entomol 32:437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Husté A, Boulinier T (2007) Determinants of local extinction and turnover rates in urban bird communities. Ecol Appl 17:168–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kark S, Iwaniuk A, Schalimtzek A, Banker E (2007) Living in the city : can anyone become an ‘urban exploiter’? J Biogeogr 34:638–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karlsson B, Van Dyck H (2005) Does habitat fragmentation affect temperature-related life-history traits? A laboratory test with a woodland butterfly. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:1257–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kelly-Stebbings A, Hewitt G (1972) The laboratory breeding of British grasshoppers. Acrida 1:233–245Google Scholar
  22. Kolliker-Ott U, Bigler F, Hoffmann A (2004) Field dispersal and host location of Trichogramma brassicae is influenced by wing size but not wing shape. Biol Control 31:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McKinney M (2002) Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. Bioscience 52:883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neil K, Wu J (2006) Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review. Urban Ecosyst 9:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Niemela J (1999) Ecology and urban planning. Biodivers Conserv 8:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parris KM, Hazell DL (2005) Biotic effects of climate change in urban environments: The case of the grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Melbourne, Australia. Biol Conserv 124:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Partecke J, Van’t Hof T, Gwinner E (2004) Differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest European blackbirds (Turdus merula): result of phenotypic flexibility or genetic differences? Proc R Soc Lond B 271:1995–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Picaud F, Petit D (2007) Primary succession of Acrididae (Orthoptera): Differences in displacement capacities in early and late colonizers of new habitats. Acta Oecol 32:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pickett S, Cadenasso M, Grove J, Nilon C, Pouyat R, Zipperer W, Costanza R (2001) Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:127–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pinheiro J, Bates D (2000) Mixed-Effects Models in S and S-PLUS. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Richards O, Waloff N (1954) Studies on the biology and population dynamics of British grasshoppers. Anti-Locust Bull 17:1–182Google Scholar
  32. Shochat E, Warren PS, Faeth SH, McIntyre NE, Hope D (2006) From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 21:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Slabbekoorn H, Ripmeester EAP (2008) Birdsong and anthropogenic noise: implications and applications for conservation. Mol Ecol 17:72–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Souch C, Grimmond S (2006) Applied climatology: urban climate. Prog Phys Geogr 30:270–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Telfer MG, Hassall M (1999) Ecotypic differentiation in the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus: life history varies in relation to climate. Oecologia 121:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thomas C, Hill J, Lewis O (1998) Evolutionary consequences of habitat fragmentation in a localized butterfly. J Anim Ecol 67:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tregenza T, Pritchard V, Butlin R (2000) Patterns of trait divergence between populations of the meadow grasshopper, Chorthippus parallelus. Evolution 54:574–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Verbeylen G, De Bruyn L, Adriaensen F, Matthysen E (2003) Does matrix resistance influence Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L. 1758) distribution in an urban landscape? Landsc Ecol 18:791–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Walters R, Hassall M (2006) The temperature-size rule in ectotherms: May a general explanation exist after all? Am Nat 167:510–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walters RJ, Hassall M, Telfer MG, Hewitt GM, Palutikof JP (2006) Modelling dispersal of a temperate insect in a changing climate. Proc R Soc Lond B 273:2017–2023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wienert U, Kuttler W (2005) The dependence of the urban heat island intensity on latitude—a statistical approach. Meteorol Z 14:677–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Willott S (1997) Thermoregulation in four species of British grasshoppers (Orthoptera : Acrididae). Funct Ecol 11:705–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Willott S, Hassall M (1998) Life-history responses of British grasshoppers (Orthoptera : Acrididae) to temperature change. Funct Ecol 12:232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yeh PJ (2004) Rapid evolution of a sexually selected trait following population establishment in a novel habitat. Evolution 58:166–174PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioural Ecology and Conservation Group, Biodiversity Research Centre, Earth and Life InstituteUniversité catholique de Louvain (UCL)Louvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations