Homing ability of adult cardinalfish is affected by elevated carbon dioxide
- 811 Downloads
The levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) predicted for the oceans by the end of this century have recently been shown to impair olfactory discrimination in larval fishes. However, whether this disruption extends to olfactory-mediated behaviour in adult fishes is unknown. In many fishes, adult survival and reproduction can be critically dependent upon navigation to home sites. We tested the effects that near-future levels of CO2 (550, 700 or 950 ppm) have on the ability of adult five-lined cardinalfish, Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, to home to their diurnal resting sites after nocturnal feeding. Cardinalfish exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited impaired ability to distinguish between odours of home- versus foreign-site conspecifics in pair-wise choice experiments. A displacement experiment demonstrated that fish from all CO2 treatments displayed a 22–31% reduction in homing success compared with control fish when released at 200 m from home sites. While CO2-exposed cardinalfish released directly back onto home sites exhibited similar site fidelity to control subjects, behaviour at home sites was affected, with CO2-exposed fish exhibiting increased activity levels and venturing further from shelter. This study demonstrates that the potential disruption of chemosensory mechanisms in fishes due to rising CO2 levels in the ocean extend to critical adult behaviours.
KeywordsClimate change Ocean acidification Navigation Apogonidae Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus
Special thanks to Danielle Dixson and Ingrid Cripps for assistance with field work and the Australian Museum Lizard Island Research Station for providing excellent logistical support and facilities. Funding to P.L.M. from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and to B.M.D. from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority supported the project. Research was conducted in accordance with JCU ethics approval A1468.
- Braithwaite VA (1998) Spatial memory, landmark use and orientation in fish. In: Healy S (ed) Spatial representation in animals. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 86–102Google Scholar
- Chave EH (1978) General ecology of six species of Hawaiian cardinalfishes. Pac Sci 32:245–270Google Scholar
- Dawbin WH (1966) The seasonal migratory cycle of humpback whales. In: Norris KS (ed) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises. University of California Press, London, pp 145–170Google Scholar
- Hara TJ (1993) The role of olfaction in fish behavior. In: Pitcher TJ (ed) Behaviour of teleost fishes, 2nd edn, Chapman & Hall, London, pp 171–195Google Scholar
- Meehl GA et al (2007) Global Climate Projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 686–688Google Scholar
- Myrberg AA Jr, Fuiman LA (2002) The sensory world of coral reef fishes. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes: dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic, San Diego, pp 123–148Google Scholar
- Randall JE, Allen GR, Steene RC (1997) Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, 2nd edn edn. Crawford House, Bathurst, pp 137–153Google Scholar
- Royal Society (2005) Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Simpson SD, Munday PL, Wittenrich ML, Manassa R, Dixson DL, Gagliano M, Yan HY (2011) Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish. Biol Lett. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0293