, Volume 137, Issue 4, pp 610–616 | Cite as

Interactions of bullfrog tadpole predators and an insecticide: predation release and facilitation

  • Michelle D. BooneEmail author
  • Raymond D. Semlitsch
Community Ecology


The effect of a contaminant on a community may not be easily predicted, given that complex changes in food resources and predator-prey dynamics may result. The objectives of our study were to determine the interactive effects of the insecticide carbaryl and predators on body size, development, survival, and activity of tadpoles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). We conducted the study in cattle tank mesocosm ponds exposed to 0, 3.5, or 7.0 mg/l carbaryl, and no predators or two red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), or crayfish (Orconectes sp.). Carbaryl negatively affected predator survival by eliminating crayfish from all ponds, and by eliminating bluegill sunfish from ponds exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl; carbaryl exposure did not effect survival of red-spotted newts. Because crayfish were eliminated by carbaryl, bullfrogs were released from predation and survival was near that of predator controls at low concentrations of carbaryl exposure. High concentrations of carbaryl reduced tadpole survival regardless of whether predators survived carbaryl exposure or not. Presence of crayfish and newts reduced tadpole survival, while bluegill sunfish appeared to facilitate bullfrog tadpole survival. Presence of carbaryl stimulated bullfrog tadpole mass and development. Our study demonstrates that the presence of a contaminant stress can alter community regulation by releasing prey from predators that are vulnerable to contaminants in some exposure scenarios.


Predator-prey interaction Carbaryl Anuran Amphibian populations Indirect effects 



Thanks to M. Bee, D. Chapman, J. Fairchild, N. Sullivan, and A. Boone-Sullivan for assistance in the field, and J. Fairchild for experimental advice and general guidance. This manuscript benefited from the thoughtful comments of C. Bridges.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biological SciencesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.USGS Columbia Environmental Research CenterColumbiaUSA

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