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Organization of serotonergic system in Sphaerotheca breviceps (Dicroglossidae) tadpole brain

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Abstract

The monoaminergic neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is known to be involved in several physiological, behavioural and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the distribution of 5-HT neuronal system in the central nervous system (CNS) of Sphaerotheca breviceps tadpoles at metamorphic climax stage. In the telencephalon, there was no 5-HT-immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) perikarya, but conspicuous fibres were observed in the olfactory bulb, pallium, subpallium and amygdala complexes. The preoptic area showed dense 5-HT-ir somata and cerebrospinal fluid contacting fibres, whereas a few varicose 5-HT-ir fibres were noticed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. 5-HT-ir cells and fibres were found in the ventral, lateral dorsal subdivisions of the hypothalamus and in the nucleus tuberculi posterioris, but only 5-HT-ir fibres were localised in the periventricular area and pituitary gland. Numerous 5-HT-ir cells and/or fibres were detected in the thalamus, entopeduncular area and mesencephalic subdivisions. In the rhombencephalon, although 5-HT-ir cells and fibres were noticed in the subdivisions of the raphe nucleus and reticular formation, a moderate plexus of fibres was observed in the cerebellum, parabrachial nucleus and solitary tract. Distinct 5-HT-ir fibres, but no perikarya, were observed in the rostral spinal cord. Overall, extensively labelled 5-HT-ir cells and fibres in the CNS of the metamorphic tadpole suggest possible roles for the involvement of 5-HT in various somatosensory, behavioural and neuroendocrine functions during final stages of development.

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Abbreviations

AADC:

L-amino acid decarboxylase

Ad:

Anterodorsal tegmental area

Av:

Anteroventral tegmental area

Acc:

Nucleus accumbens

BSA:

Bovine serum albumin

Cb:

Cerebellum

CNS:

Central nervous system

CSF-C:

Cerebrospinal fluid contacting

CTh:

Central thalamic area

DA:

Dopamine

DAPI:

4ʹ,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole

DH:

Dorsal hypothalamus

Dp:

Dorsal pallium

Ep:

Entopeduncular area

GL:

Glomerular layer

GR:

Granule cell layer

H:

Ganglion habenulae

Hyp:

Hypothalamus

Ip:

Interpeduncular nucleus

LA:

Lateral amygdala

LH:

Lateral hypothalamus

Lp:

Lateral pallium

Lpv:

Lateral thalamic nucleus pars posteroventralis

Ls:

Lateral septum

MeA:

Medial amygdala

ML:

Mitral layer

Mp:

Medial pallium

Ms:

Medial septum

NOS:

Nitric oxide synthase

Nri:

Nucleus reticularis isthmi

nIII:

Oculomotor nucleus

OB:

Olfactory bulb

OC:

Optic chiasma

OT:

Optic tectum

Pb:

Parabrachial nucleus

PBS:

Phosphate-buffered saline

Pd:

Pars distalis of the pituitary

Pi:

Pars intermedia of the pituitary

Pn:

Pars nervosa of the pituitary

Pit:

Pituitary

POa:

Preoptic area

PTh:

Posterior thalamic area

PVa:

Periventricular area

Rai:

Raphe nucleus inferior

Ras:

Raphe nucleus superior

RSC:

Rostral spinal cord

Ri:

Inferior reticular nucleus

Rm:

Median reticular nucleus

Rs:

Superior reticular nucleus

SCN:

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Sgc:

Stratum griseum centrale

Sgp:

Stratum griseum periventriculare

Sgs:

Stratum griseum superficiale

Sol:

Solitary tract

Str:

Striatum

Tel:

Telencephalon

TH:

Tyrosine hydroxylase

TH-ir:

Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive

Th:

Thalamus

Tl:

Laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis

Tmg:

Magnocellular nucleus of the torus semicircularis

TP:

Nucleus tuberculi posterioris

TS:

Torus semicircularis

V:

Ventricle

VH:

Ventral hypothalamus

VL:

Ventrolateral thalamic nucleus

VM:

Ventromedial thalamic nucleus

5-HT:

5-Hydroxytryptamine

5-HT-ir:

5-HT-immunoreactive

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Acknowledgements

The infrastructural facility received under research grants from Science & Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology (SERB-DST), New Delhi, Government of India, is gratefully acknowledged.

Funding

This study was supported by a grant from University Grants Commission (UGC-SAP No. F-18/2015/DSA-I), New Delhi.

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Correspondence to Ganesh C.B..

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Ethics approval

Experimental procedures were carried out in accordance with the guidelines of an Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (No. 639/GO/Re/S/02/CPCSEA).

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Bhat, S.K., C.B., G. Organization of serotonergic system in Sphaerotheca breviceps (Dicroglossidae) tadpole brain. Cell Tissue Res 391, 67–86 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-022-03709-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-022-03709-7

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