Transplantation of stem cells from umbilical cord blood as therapy for type I diabetes

Abstract

In recent years, human umbilical cord blood has emerged as a rich source of stem, stromal and immune cells for cell-based therapy. Among the stem cells from umbilical cord blood, CD45+ multipotent stem cells and CD90+ mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to treat type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), to correct autoimmune dysfunction and replenish β-cell numbers and function. In this review, we compare the general characteristics of umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (UCB-SCs) and umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and introduce their applications in T1DM. Although there are some differences in surface marker expression between UCB-SCs and UCB-MSCs, the two cell types display similar functions such as suppressing function of stimulated lymphocytes and imparting differentiation potential to insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the setting of low immunogenicity, thereby providing a promising and safe approach for T1DM therapy.

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Funding

This research was supported by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (Grant No. 17-2013-288), NIH (Grant No. 1DP2CA195763-01) and Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (Grant No. 17-2013-491).

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Correspondence to Jonathan R. T. Lakey.

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Stiner, R., Alexander, M., Liu, G. et al. Transplantation of stem cells from umbilical cord blood as therapy for type I diabetes. Cell Tissue Res 378, 155–162 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-019-03046-2

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Keywords

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • Umbilical cord blood
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Multipotent stem cells
  • Immunomodulation
  • Insulin-producing cells