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Synergistic effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α and bone morphogenetic protein-2 treatment on odontogenic differentiation of human stem cells from apical papilla cultured in the VitroGel 3D system

  • Min Xiao
  • Jun Qiu
  • Rong Kuang
  • Beidi Zhang
  • Wei WangEmail author
  • Qing YuEmail author
Regular Article
  • 139 Downloads

Abstract

Pulp-dentin regeneration in the apical region of immature permanent teeth represents a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering approaches using bioactive molecules and scaffolds may have the potential to regenerate the natural apical structure of these teeth, representing a superior alternative to existing treatment regimens. The aims of this study are (i) to evaluate the VitroGel 3D system, an animal origin-free polysaccharide hydrogel, as a possible injectable scaffold for pulp-dentin regeneration and (ii) to investigate the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and bone morphogenetic protein-2(BMP-2) cotreatment on odontogenic differentiation of human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) cultured in the VitroGel 3D system. The morphology, viability and proliferation of SCAP cultured in the VitroGel 3D system were measured via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), live and dead cell staining and CCK-8 assays. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were further used to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation of SCAP cultured in the VitroGel 3D system in vitro. Finally, the odontogenic differentiation was assessed in vivo through ectopic subcutaneous injection. The results showed that SCAP cultured in 3D hydrogel demonstrated favorable viability and proliferation. SDF-1α and BMP-2 cotreatment enhanced odontogenic differentiation-related gene and protein expression in vitro and promoted odontogenic differentiation of SCAP in vivo. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the VitroGel 3D system promoted SCAP proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, SDF-1α cotreatment had synergistic effects on BMP-2-induced odontogenic differentiation of human SCAP cultured in the VitroGel 3D system both in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords

Stem cells from apical papilla Hydrogel Stromal cell-derived factor-1α Bone morphogenetic protein-2 Odontoblastic differentiation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We appreciate Beidi Zhang for technical assistance of cell culture and animal experimental and Rong Kuang and Wei Wang for intellectual help on the project.

Funding

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 81670975, 31500786, 31600786).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical conduct of research

All animal procedures were performed and experimental protocols were approved by the guidelines of the Animal Care Committee of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China (SCXK (Military) 2007-007), which was in compliance with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

441_2019_3045_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.2 mb)
Supplementary Figure 1 (DOCX 3271 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and EndodonticsThe Fourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of Endodontics, School of StomatologyChina Medical UniversityShenyangChina

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